Traveling around Europe by plane, train, bus or car is easy

Make a travel map – travel around Europe by train, plane, bus or rent a car. This saves you time and money. If you don’t have a budget, compare prices to a train, plane or bus. Check the time of departure, time of arrival and duration of the trip.

By train

Traveling in Europe by train is still the most popular way around. If the motto of your life is to travel the easy way, this is a great way to get to your favorite cities! Find out how many countries you will visit. There are certain types of fares on trains to suit your needs. Do you travel in the afternoon when you can admire the scenery? Or at night until you get some sleep and wake up in a new direction, saving you a night at the hotel? Travel around Europe the way Europeans do! Mix with the locals. Tip, like at home, keep things close to you, especially in big cities like Rome.

I traveled around Europe alone. And for women traveling alone, Europe can be quite safe. I have never had the need to travel at night as I prefer to sleep in a warm comfortable bed. 🙂 Take drinks with you during the trip. Most stations have shops and kiosks. It’s hard to be thirsty on board and pray for that guy who sells snacks to show up!

Eurorail or eurail season tickets can only be purchased while you are outside Europe. There are special passes depending on the length of stay, the number of times you will travel and how many countries you will see. It’s convenient, though, if you’re covering multiple cities at once, it’s best to purchase point-to-point tickets. In these cases, I buy mine on the spot.

The Green Way to Travel the UK: Take the Virgin Train! They have bets of £ 12.50 one way. And if you book early, they have great deals for first class. First class and environmental savings, which is a great combination.

By plane

People who want to get to their destination faster and cheaper, European regional airlines offer promotional flights, sometimes even cheaper than the fare on the train! Wow! This is a great way to travel around Europe! So instead of traveling overnight by train you can choose a flight! There are many cheap airlines to make us women travelers happy!

The British Midlands fly from London to several European cities. My flight from Paris to London with the group was delayed, but the service made up for it. Despite this delay, I am still flying in the British Midlands.

I also tried the easyjet from Dortmund to Rome-Ciampino and the Jet2 from Leeds to Amsterdam Schiphol. These are low-cost airlines. If I had ordered fast enough, I could have delivered the fare to Leeds to Amsterdam for just £ 1 (excluding taxes)!

Flying within Italy? Try My Air. They also fly to several international cities in Europe.

Remember that you pay for drinks and snacks on board, so make sure you have ready coins or small bills. The flights left on time and in about an hour, you are already at your destination!

On the other hand, it is also possible to rent a private jet. Check out Net Jets Europe if you don’t want to wait for flights (like everyone else, deadly).

By car

If you like to drive while on vacation and consider a stress-free hobby, then rent a car! Going across Europe is the wind … so says Ian (my husband) … I can’t say the same because I don’t know how to drive!

By bus

Traveling by bus across Europe is an alternative to bypassing trains. It’s simple. Jump, jump. Now coaches are turning into cutting-edge. The ride is as smooth as if you were on a plane! A bus trip – your thing on your next trip to Europe? There are several bus companies to choose from.

I was riding a Eurolines bus from Amsterdam to Paris. We left Amstel station around 8pm and arrived in Paris at 6am. At night there are a few stops for the toilet, and since the seats were comfortable, I felt fine on arrival.

The National Express is a British bus operator that travels to about a thousand seats in the United Kingdom and to popular destinations in Europe (with Eurolines) all the way to Moscow and St. Petersburg! There are some great deals so you can just get a chance at a great deal. The trip may take longer than the train, but you won’t have to worry about your luggage, as all luggage is stored under the bus.

Private coach

The best in land travel, you and your friends and family enjoy your coach’s privacy! Plan your itinerary and your own professional driver will guide you across the continent for the duration of the trip. The last family group I decided to travel to Europe (well, Italy and France), comfortably and safely own their own luxury bus, a big plus in their vacation! The kids demanded back seats to chat all day, and their parents stayed ahead enjoying the view!

On the ferry

This is a great alternative for those who are easily bored. On board the ferry you can engage in various activities, so that during an independent trip to Europe there are no sad moments.


Memories of the Old Rainbeck airfield in the mid-nineties

Although aircraft types at Cole Palen airfield in Old Rheinbeck have changed over the years due to weekend use, maintenance, repairs and the need to enter and retire, some have been synonymous with both air shows and flights. This article reviews an article from the mid-1990s.

Passing through the covered bridge portal, I entered the rocking grass and recalled an airfield on October Sunday, 1996. Immediately behind the ticket office was a Curtiss Model D biplane on a small grassy area near the airfield canteen and a striped yellow and white tent.

In a short fence flew planes representing the era of aviation pioneer, World War I and the Golden Age under a crystal blue sky, the first in a series of consecutive weekends to provide such perfect weather, and the surrounding trees were in the fall. shades and torch-chestnut, lemon and lime. The original, wallless hangar, labeled “Old Rheinbeck Airfield 1,” was across the field, and, as I later learned, the first founder of Cole Palen Airfield, whose philosophy was to “keep dreams alive,” keeping even centuries-old planes in the sky. was the first one he built.

The aromas of the airfield canteen, as always, lured me to lunch, which usually consisted of a hamburger littered with fried onions, chopped tomatoes and pickles, a bar of “free fixin” and a side of fried potatoes in French.

The air show on Sunday’s “First World War,” as opposed to Saturday’s “Flight History,” usually took place between 1430 and 1600, and its optimal view was from benches in the middle of the field, opposite the wooden stage.

Began both that and the old-fashioned parade, volunteer spectators disguised in ancient clothing in a red, trimmed walkway, and the atmosphere that created the beginning for the early 1900s was enhanced by several in the early 20th century functioning vehicles. – in this case, a touring car Renault 1909, Baker Electric 1911, Ford Model T 1914, Studebaker 1916 and Franklin 1929.

Although the air show itself had eye-catching traits, characters and antics such as man-rocket, oversized bike, diving in Delsie, burst balloon, skydiving, Black Baron, Trudy Truelove, Madame Fifi and mock fights. , the stars on the air scene were planes that were either original gliders or reproductions with original engines.

Since World War I, these have included the Avro 504K from the UK, the Nieuport 11 from France, the Fokker Dr.1 and D.VII triplanes with seven Swabian paint schemes from Germany and the Curtiss JN-4H Hispano-Suiza Jenny with an engine today from the US.

There were also a few from the Golden Age.

The first of these was Pitcairn Mailing. The catalyst for the project was the award on January 29 of contract airmail (CAM) route 19 between New York and Atlanta by Pitcairn Aviation, which selected as employees a fleet of PA-5 Mailwing aircraft, which produced itself. Based on the configuration of the predecessor PA-4, it included a closed, fireproof 26-cubic-foot front cabin capable of carrying up to 500 pounds of express, but could support a center of gravity that changed only an inch when left empty.

Powered by a 220hp Wright J5-9 engine, it had a 33-foot upper and 30-foot lower wing with a total area of ​​252 square feet, and the aircraft – 2620 pounds gross and 1008 pounds of payload, could climb at a speed of 100 mph and reach speeds of up to 131 mph with a smooth flight.

Six months later, on June 17, he was taken out of his factory in Brin Athens, in a black fuselage and golden wings, which were in a checkerboard pattern, and the lower part included a dihedral.

“So far, air mail planes have been like mail trucks, heavy and purposeful, strictly utilitarian in appearance, difficult to control,” Frank Kingston Smith said in “The Legacy of Wings: The Story of Harold E. Pitcairn” (Jason Aronson, Inc., 1981). , pp. 109). “On the contrary, the black-and-gold Pitcairn was a poem at altitude, spinning and spinning in flight effortlessly, with easy and fast control, a shimmering performer, but obviously with the strength to cope with turbulent conditions.”

After that, on November 19, Route 25 Airlines between Atlanta and Miami, Pitcairn Airlines covered the east coast.

Much in demand, Mailwing was ordered by other carriers to operate their own postal routes, including “Colonial Air Transport” from Boston to New York, “Texas Air Transport” and “Clifford Ball”.

The example of old Rainbeck was a slightly stretched PA-7. Built to meet the ever-increasing demand for mail, this Super Mailwing, including significant pilot line recommendations, began in the 50th PA-6 on the production line, but introduced a modified direct fuselage profile to increase flight speed and stability. an increase in leg length to 23.9 feet, a rounded rudder and wing tips, a 240 hp Wright J6-7 engine, a 42 cubic foot mail compartment, a payload of 630 pounds and a gross weight of 3050 pounds. to 2620 PA-5.

Another type of Golden Age in air shows, albeit originating across the Atlantic, was de Haviland DH.82 Tiger Mole.

It may have its roots in the “solution” that Sir Jeffrey de Haviland aspired to the two previous light sports aircraft he designed, but which failed to provide the performance he conceived, including the single-wing low-wing monoplane DH.53 Humming Bird 1923 year and a two-triple biplane DH.51 two years later.

The latter formed the basis of the reduced two-seater biplane, which received the DH.60 Moth, properly propelled by a 60-hp engine that optimized it for training and flight flights. Very successful, it was produced by the thousands between 1925 and the mid-1930s.

Using a Gipsy engine developed at the end of the decade, the next DH.71 was a diminutive single-wing low-wing monoplane with a span of 19 feet, but it could reach service limits of 1,951 feet and record speed of 186.47 mph. However, the most important thing was that it was the first design to be called the “Tiger Mole.”

Causing a series of repetitions and modifications, he reached the final version of DH.82 Tiger Moth after his prototype, registered by the G-ABRC, first took off on October 26, 1931, and the Royal Air Force accepted him as head coach. One hundred and thirty-five were built.

An order for a 50 improved version followed in late 1934. Designed as a DH.82A, it was powered by a 130-hp Gipsy Major 1 engine, included two tandem open cabins, and housed armed, chess-mounted wings mounted on a dihedral. With 1,825 pounds of gross weight, it could climb at 635 rpm, reach speeds of 104 mph and have a service ceiling of 14,000 feet.

Although this type was delivered to primary and backup civil aviation schools, the usefulness was just beginning. With the outbreak of World War II production was unprecedented. After the construction of the 1424 DH.82A assembly was transferred from Hatfield to Morris Motors, Ltd., in Cowley, Oxford, in 1941, where an additional 3,433 aircraft were built, followed by 1,533 in Canada, 132 in New Zealand and 1,095 in Australia. .

After the war the market was saturated with this former military coach.

“Since then, the tiger moth has been engaged in a variety of air work,” according to A. Jackson in “Tiger moth de Haviland” (Profile Publications, 1966, p. 12), “including training flights, towing a glider, falling parachutists, or towing banners on all over the world, but it will be remembered mainly by pioneering work to create agricultural aviation as a new and prosperous industry. ”

Two of the “Tiger Moths,” who performed at an air show over the weekend in Old Rainbeck, were owned by the late Bill King and Mike Manyatis.

Another major product in the Old Rheinbeck sky was the mid-late 1990s – Great Lakes sports coach, registered NC304Y.

Built by Great Lakes Aircraft Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, in early 1929, it served as a small two-seater simulator, it was a single-sided fabric-covered biplane powered by a built-in 85 hp Cirrus II engine. 2-T-1, which first took off as a prototype in March.

As an aircraft with high maneuverability, it held the world record for the number of external loops in a row – only 131 – in its appearance 2-T-1A.

Because of its popularity, it was remanufactured in 1970 and then in 2011, including new building materials – from spruce to Douglas fir to metal, and greatly improved appliances and engines.

“Versions of the Great Lakes and Children’s Great Lakes have been created by various companies and individuals since the golden age, which is based on the values ​​of these beautiful machines for modern generations,” said Mike Wines in “Return to the Rainbow: Flying Vintage Planes” (Airlife Publishing , Ltd ,, 1998, p.57). “(The) Great Lakes 2T-1MS, NC304Y, serial number 191, beginning in 1930, began life as a 2-T-1E with a four-cylinder built-in inverted ACE Cirrus Hi-Drive engine producing 95 hp Menasco Private 125 hp. s. officially makes it a 2T-1MS model. NC304Y has always been Cole’s big favorite … “

Another major product of the Golden Age was Travel Air, a model manufactured by the Travel Air Manufacturing Company, founded in 1925 in Wichita, Kansas.

Designed as an advanced successor to the previous wooden frame in a metal frame, it had a cloth-covered steel fuselage, double tandem open cabins (although the front bench could theoretically accommodate two passengers) and, swinging, N -closed wings. However, increasing its performance, there were the characteristics of the World War I fighter Fokker D.VII, including overhanging, balanced ailerons and rudders, which served to counteract aerodynamic drag during the deflections of the flight surface, increase the response speed of the aircraft and provide easier piloting control . They also gave the type the characteristic of a vertical tail the appearance of an “elephant’s ear.”

Due to its simplicity of design, reliability, capabilities, durability, efficiency and performance, it surpassed all competing types in the 1920s and 1930s, only seriously competing with Waco’s own designs, and found many applications – from stunts to assault and air racing. , sport and bush flights, and air taxiing. Along with Stearman Kaydet it was the most widely used vacuum cleaner.

Also often on the sky of the Old Rainbeck air show was Gin Demarck’s “Lucky 7” Stampe SV.4B.

Based on the original SV.4, built by Stampe et Vertongen in Antwerp, Belgium, which flew in 1933, this two-seater, heavily-spanned winged biplane simulator in the SV.4B version was powered by a Renault 4 with 140 hp. Engine PO5. Complete with de Havilland Gipsy Major X or Blackburn Cirrus Major X engine with 145 hp. its analogue SV.4B with a wingspan and an area of ​​194.4 square feet possessed 1697 pounds gross. Its top speed was 116 miles per hour and its service ceiling was 20,000 feet.

Although its production was modest, it included 35 plans before World War II and 65 after it, the acquisition by Stampe et Renard, as well as SV.4C models built under license in France and Algeria with a 140 hp Renault 4-Pei. s. power plants, leaving another 940 were produced between 1948 and 1955 to meet the need for a French primary simulator.

Another frequent player in the sky air show was Davis D-1W. With roots in the V-3, it was manufactured by Davis Airlines, created by Walter K. Davis after it acquired and merged Vulcan Airlines and Doyle Aero Company. Acquiring the rights to the American volcanic moth, he produced a monoplane umbrella, modified by engineer Dwight Huntington and certified on September 6, 1929.

Although the improved Davis W-1, which appeared two months later, on November 8, made a promise, the collapse of Wall Street in 1929 along with a fire that destroyed the company’s hangar and production facilities forced it to shut down.

Thanks to a rectangular welded steel fuselage with a covered fabric and a single stand to the lower fuselage with an umbrella wing with two 30.2-foot-tall side members, the Davis D-1W was powered by a seven-cylinder 125-horsepower air-cooled radial Warren Scarab engine. Mainly operated on private and sports airfields, it had a maximum weight of 1,461 pounds, a speed of 142 mph and a range of 480 miles.

The N532K aircraft flew regularly in the Old Rheinbeck.

“(The) Davis D-1W, beginning in 1929, would have been originally equipped with a Warner radius of 110 hp, hence the designation” W “,” according to Vines (ibid., P. 127). “In fact, it is now powered by a 125-horsepower Warner propulsion system. This classic sports aircraft was conceived by Vulcan Aircraft Company as the American answer to the success of the Moth de Havilland biplane series in England. They became more important when former carmaker Walter Davis acquired the rights for production, but because of the economic climate of the time only about sixty fine monoplanes with umbrella wings were built. “

None of the airships of World War I in the 1990s and even the following decade were without Stan Segala, who was dubbed the “flying farmer” and who flew the 1946 PA-11 on the Canadian Yellow Canadian Piper Cub, registered N4568M.

A World War II veteran who flew in the Old Rheinbeck in the summer and winter taught the art of aerobatics at the Decathlon in Venice, Florida, he owned 39 single-engine aircraft, trained more than 10,000 pilots and logged in for more than 21,000 hours in more than half a century in the sky.

While airplanes have always been central to the airfield, it was he, as a man of comedic skill, who did everything that always began with an inexperienced, “anonymous” employee disguised in pursuit of Baby Piper, who, controlled by Segala, circled and escaped. capture on the ground. Jumps in the air, maneuvers and landings on one wheel and clear accentuation emphasized the final merger of man and machine, as the aircraft became nothing more than its expansion.

One of Cole Pellen’s original team members, who shaped and changed the vintage aviation experience for novice spectators, he retired in 2008 and eight years later ruined the land at the age of 91.

“Adaptation at the airfield from the beginning,” Old Rainbeck said in a statement, “Stanley could always be found on Sundays, killing him in the crowd before he had time to leave the baby Piper again and impress the audience.” Shot-Gatling “was popular in the early era of air shows, driving an Avro 504K in support of Sir Percy in the eternal saga that played out every weekend in the skies over Rainbeck. Pilot Stan raised everyone around he loved to ride before and after the show to any participant, often spending full mode in its Cube and Decathlon, always smiling at the passenger’s face. returned them to the flight line. “

While the pioneering planes of Old Rheinbeck Airfield took center stage on Saturday’s airplane of Flight History and its First World War designs in Sunday’s First World War, these 1920s and 1930s planes, which often participated in both, could have earned their own “Golden Age Air Show”.

Sources of articles:

Jackson, Aubrey Joseph. Tiger Mole de Haviland. Leatherhead, Surrey, England: publications in profile, 1966.

Smith, Frank Kingston. The Legacy of the Wings: The Story of Harold F. Pitcairn. New York: Jason Aronson, Inc., 1981.

Lazy, Mike. Return to Rainbeck. Shrewsbury, England: Airlife Publishing, Ltd., 1998.


Gibraltar holidays – cheap flights and hotels

Holidays of Gibraltar

Located on the southern tip of Spain, a famous and picturesque island, Gibraltar is mostly located outside the United Kingdom. It is usually located at the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea. The British claimed the island in 1973, and it is now an international port and a hot tourist destination, famous for holidays, short city breaks, and both weddings and honeymoons. There are many travel agents that offer cheap flights to Gibraltar. Book a cheap package of airline tickets and hotels for the next holidays in Gibraltar. But before that lets walk around the island.

The Rock of Gibraltar

The main attraction of the tour in Gibraltar is the “Rock” and its nice. The Rock of Gibraltar is a significant theme for botanists and bird watchers, but also endows tourists with sightseeing activities such as outstanding semi-wild monkeys, caves, tunnels, large military cannons and many other historical and geological sites. It has a very famous tunnel, popularly known as the “maze”. Cable cars are used to reach the top of the cliff.

Hotels in Gibraltar

Gibraltar has many cheap and luxurious hotels that offer their guests the best services. You can get very cheap and discounted prices on some of the best and hotels in Gibraltar for a short city holiday at “”. They have contracted rates at most Gibraltar hotels and claim to offer the cheapest rates than any other. The most privileged hotels in Gibraltar are: The Rock Hotel, The Eliott Hotel, The Caleta Hotel, The Bristol Hotel, The Queen Hotel, The Continental Hotel and The Cannon Hotel.

Duty free shopping in Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a well-known area of ​​shopping, as it is one of the few places of purchase in Europe without VAT, which offers its visitors a wide range of non-taxable goods. The best in shopping in Gibraltar – you don’t even need to change currency to shop so as not to mess with foreign coins! At the same value, the pound sterling and the pound of Gibraltar are acceptable forms of payment at all outlets. So buy the island for the next Gibraltar holidays.

Sightseeing tour of Gibraltar

The places you should see on holidays in Gibraltar are the Rock, Europa Point, sailing, cable cars, dolphin safaris, a botanical garden, city gates and fortifications, the Gulf of Catalonia. Those interested in natural history related to the sea, rocks, land or plants will enjoy the holiday in Gibraltar as the island is very rich in such things all year round. For the convenience of visitors, some travel agents organize day trips to Gibraltar, which include a short visit in a minimum time by taxi or bus, so that tourists can spend as much time as possible to explore the many places.

Attractions of Gibraltar

There are some local areas such as Rock Monkeys, dolphin excursions to the Gulf of Gibraltar and other marine mammals that include strait whaling, which always attracts tourists and is worth a visit on the holiday of Gibraltar. For bird lovers and bird watchers, there are several different species, including prey, storks, vultures, songbirds and seabirds. The spring season is the magnificent butterflies that emerge, making the island a beautiful paradise of natural wildlife. Gibb has a lot to see when you spend your vacation in Gibraltar. The botanical garden is a combination of aesthetic beauty, a very quiet area filled with colorful fountains, ponds and waterfalls. On the east side of the cliff is the Gulf of Catalonia, where you can enjoy traditional boating and fishing. Although a village, but in the Gulf of Catalonia there is a beach, pubs and restaurants, etc.

Flights to Gibraltar

With airlines starting new routes to Gibraltar, there is now a good selection of cheap flights to Gibraltar. Pay attention to the usual free night offers and other offers that save money when ordering online! Plan your holiday in Gibraltar now while the ticket price is still low and the city remains untouched before the treasures of tourists and deer discover this new destination.


Lockheed L-188 Electra

1. Origin of design:

Transition periods sometimes suggest transitional solutions. During the 1950s a reciprocating airliner in the form of the constellations Douglas DC-6 and DC-7 and the constellations Lockheed L-649/749 and -1040 moved to its technological peaks, but a purely jet engine other than powered by the ill-fated de Heavyland DH.106 Comets I and new military aircraft have not yet reached maturity in commercial aviation. A compromise, at least in terms of speed, was the turboprop engine, which combined elements of both and had already been introduced by Vickers Viscount in the UK.

It was during this period, particularly in 1954, that American Airlines, with the support of interest from the East, introduced the technical characteristics of the design of the new class airliner. These included cruising speeds of more than 400 miles per hour, profitable operations in sectors ranging from 100 to 2,700 miles, passenger capacity of at least 65 and a type of short-term flight that would serve all 100 major countries ’airports.

In short, it aspired to greater speed, comfort and economy than the one offered by the current generation of four-engine piston vehicles, but it could operate multi-sector flights without requiring refueling on the road and achieve profitability with load factors up to 50 percent.

“The Americans and the East demanded an aircraft equally skilled in operations on short and long-range aircraft,” according to Robert J. Serling in “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery” (Bantam Books, 1963, p. 15). “Basically it managed to reach thirteen and a half feet of support, which swept a powerful air stream over all sections of the wing except nine feet.”

To this end, Lockheed chose to use the same design team C-130 Hercules and Allison T-56 engines that powered this type, creating the first in the US turboprop airliner L-188.

“Lockheed opened the commercial jet jet era of America by hanging a propeller on a jet engine,” according to Jim Upton in “Lockheed L-188 Electra” (Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1999, p. 7). Research has allowed Lockheed to believe that, although propeller-free jets (great for long-range combat), airlines will be better served by having an efficient vehicle for segments that have shown little or no profit in the past (i.e., short and medium). routes “.

The aircraft was virtually the product of an equation that stated, “Reactive power + propeller efficiency = proper performance and economy.”

Apart from the design team and power plant, he also shared another aspect of the kind of manufacturer: its name. Ensuring that its products would have a star designation, as was the case in the 1920s and 1930s with names such as “Orion”, “Vega”, “Sirius” and “Altair”, he would borrow the nomenclature of his double piston. engine L-10 Electra, L-12 Electra Junior and L-14 Super Electra.

Eastern and American respectively placed 40 and 35 L-188 Electras second generation in 1955.

2. Design features:

“(The Lockheed L-188 Electra) has a focused and powerful profile,” said Arthur Weidman, a veteran of American Airlines veteran who flew on DC-3, Convairliners, DC-6 and DC-7 aircraft. “The nose tilts sharply down to provide good visibility forward on the ground and in the air. Then its lines go straight back along a perfectly cylindrical fuselage to get a wider cross section than the DC-7 … lifting up to the dorsal fin and rudder, producing a smooth , a slender, streamlined look. The slender motorcycles protrude forward like giant probes, providing a minimum of frontal resistance. “

With a fuselage length of 104.6 feet and a diameter of 11.4 feet Electra had large square windows for passengers.

One of the keys to its design was the wing. Being proportionately too short in range for the aircraft it supported, mounted with significant dihedral and sporty square tips, it was only 5.5 feet shorter than the fuselage itself, 99 feet long, and offered both a low-resistance ratio and and proportions. . Its tailgate flaps ran from the fuselage root to the ailerons, or directly behind the exhaust nozzles of the external engines, and nearly 80 percent of the span was flushed by a support that creates lift, making it easier to drive at low speeds.

Power was provided by four Allison 501-D13 turboprops with a capacity of 3750 ESP (equivalent shaft power), which received a diameter of 13.6 feet, with one rotation, hydraulic control, constant speed, reversible pitch, four-bladed propellers. Compared to a purely jet engine, the jet engine had a reducer that propelled both the propeller and additional stages of the gas turbine section, resulting in a thrust ratio of 90:10, or 90 percent generated by the propeller and 10 percent exhaust. .

The ailerons, elevator and steering wheel were driven by hydraulic devices connected to the pipes, while the air compressor of the engine released air, which provided anti-icing of all control surfaces.

The aircraft’s 5520-gallon aircraft fuel capacity was stored in four solid tanks with wings divided into two, 1,100-gallon internal and two 1,660-gallon outboard. Cross-fueling in flight was required only on distant sectors exceeding 1,800 miles.

The L-188 relied on a two-wheeled, hydraulically driven, retractable three-wheeled chassis, which had the ability to gravitational expansion of free fall in the event of a breakdown of the hydraulic or electrical system.

Integral air ladders that extend into the fuselage, along with other autonomous functions and its low ground level that support equipment-independent position, facilitated reversals at transit stations where refueling was not required in just 12 minutes.

Standard on the “Electro” flew a cabin crew of three people, with a duplicate of the throttle quadrant on the sides of the captain and first officer, as well as the seat of a flight engineer behind in the center on domestic routes, and the fourth crew member – navigator. on the international and located at the stern of the left side, taking the place of the observer’s food otherwise.

Although the configuration and density of the passenger compartment varied depending on the operator, Lockheed initially offered several options facilitated by the installation of tracks. It was possible to install 66 20-inch-wide, 20-inch-wide seats on a 38-inch step with a 26-inch aisle or 85 18-inch-wide seats with a 17-inch aisle, both accommodating a six-seater, tail-mounted living room housed in a semicircular configuration. The installation of a stern as well as a conventional medium toilet reduced capacity to 83, while the maximum was 99 five in 20 rows. In addition, 127 passengers were available in a 32-inch step-by-step configuration, but constructive modifications and additional exits were required to meet the evacuation criteria.

The maximum differential of 6.55 pounds per square inch is achieved by two superchargers from the engine, provided that the cabin pressure and temperature are maintained by radiant heating.

Luggage, cargo and mail were transported in two floor pipes that had access to the starboard side.

The initial domestic version of the L-188A, with a maximum takeoff weight of 113,000 pounds, had a range of 2,200 miles and reached a cruise of 373 mph and a top speed of 448 mph.

“There were … two major versions, the L-188A for U.S. domestic operations, with a fuel capacity of 5,520 US gallons, and the L-188C with 900 gallons more fuel and a total weight of 116,000 pounds …,” according to Michael Hardy at World Civil Aircraft since 1945 (“Sons of Charles Scribner”, 1979, p. 93).

Its range was 3,500 miles.

3. Test flights:

Piloted by Captain Herman “Fish” Salmon, First Officer Roy Wimmer, Flight Engineer Laurie Hallard and Flight Test Engineer Bill Sprayer, the L-188 Electra made an inaugural flight from Lockheed Airport in Burbank, California, December 195, 1957. “The smoothness and quietness of the plane (were obvious at once). The vibration level was very low and the engines were so quiet that you could hear the chase of the plane.”

After a 655-hour flight test program of four aircraft, the type was certified on August 12, 1958, five weeks ahead of schedule, allowing the first delivery of the 1007 to launch to Eastern Airlines customers two months later, on October 8.

Praise for Electra’s design and performance capabilities has accumulated, according to the airline’s Pilots Association’s evaluation committee.

“Members were very impressed with the possible rapid use of force and the immediate response of the aircraft to takeoff,” they said. “It definitely exceeded their forbidden boarding and alighting.

“High-speed stability is good … good control response at landing speed … responded well to landing flash … take-off and landing characteristics of crosswind were most normal …

“The characteristic characteristics of this aircraft in all configurations were exceptionally good. There was no fall of any wing, nor any other adverse trends.

“This committee is more than reasonably confident that manufacturers, operators, pilots and the public will be satisfied with the safety, efficiency and economy indicators that will be achieved.”

American Airlines captain Arthur Weidman spoke about it after his first flight of this type.

“Electra is every inch of the pilot,” he wrote in Douglas J.’s L-1011 TriStar and Lockheed Story. Ingels (Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973, p. 124). His initial impression was that the plane was radiating. “functional beauty”.

Despite the powerful jet turbines, during the taxi and acceleration in the cabin, it was quieter than in similar piston liners.

“… He was in a hurry and got up quickly,” he said. “Obviously, in her streamlined motorcycles (and) traction, a lot of power was stored to save on noticeably wide, flat propeller blades (p. 127).

Advancing the throttle to the “flight mode” stage caused the aircraft to accelerate at 13,820 rpm with its engines, causing the L-188 to reach its turn “before it happened in the Piper Cube. The power is there and utters performance.

“Due to the low level of sound and vibration, takeoff seems easy, and the plane takes off …”, – he continued (p. 129). “The throbbing vibration of reciprocating engines and the long slow exit to the past.”

Unlike the throttles on other aircraft, they on the Electra controlled the angle of the blade rather than the engine turns, which remained constant throughout all stages of the flight. Therefore, the change in traction depended only on the change of their step, but had to be combined with the entrances to the elevator.

The climbs ranged from 2,200 to 2,500 rpm, and speeds exceeded 400 miles per hour.

The lifting and wing efficiency has been greatly increased by flushing the support over the top surface.

“It responds to control actions more like a fighter than to a 60-ton airliner,” he commented (p. 129).

The power reserve of the aircraft was almost astronomical: it could climb on any two engines and maintain altitude on either.

For landing only contact with the earth and the short slowed-down crane promoting imposing of brakes and a reversible step of screws is necessary.

4. Airline:

The first and largest of the 14 original operators with 34 L-188As and six L-188Cs, Eastern Airlines opened this type of regular service on January 12, 1959, designed for 66 classmates, as well as a stern six-seater, on several two-sector routes. including New York (Idwild) -Atlanta-Tampa, Miami-New York-Montreal and Detroit-Cleveland-Miami. It was both the aircraft of the first and second divisions (before DC-9) of the air shuttle between 1965 and 1977, which connected “La Guardia” with Boston and Washington.

The “American”, the second operator of the 35 L-188A, opened the service “Electra” on the same day as the “East”, on the route New York-La Guardia – Chicago Midway.

The national airline, which ordered 15 L-188A aircraft, offered a cabin for 72 passengers and six seats and connected New York (Idlewild) with Miami as of April 23, 1959.

Braniff, who offered a similar 75/6 scheme, served the Texas cities of Dallas, Houston and San Antonio from New York-Iddwild and Chicago Midway airports.

“Advertised as a ‘Brand New Dimension in Jet Age Travel,’ Western Airlines began servicing Electra-Jet aircraft between the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland and Seattle on the West Coast on August 1, 1959,” John Proctor said. . Mike Mackett and Craig Coder in “From Props to Jets: The Transition of Commercial Aviation to the Jet Era” (Specialty Press, 2010, p. 91). “Two months later, turboprop flights were added to Salt Lake City, Denver and Minneapolis as the fleet expanded to five first-class aircraft with 66 seats. They were followed by seven more Electras with the latest delivered in a 96-seat station wagon. not enough living room. “

Opening service on September 18, 1959, with 18 L-188Cs from 72 locations, the Northwest served with it its combat base in Minneapolis and also operated the transcontinental segment from New York-Iddwild to Seattle.

KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, having 12 international L-188Cs with 67 passengers, became the only European operator Electra, opening it in operation on December 9, 1959 on the routes Amsterdam-Dusseldorf-Vienna, Amsterdam-Frankfurt-Budapest and those to the Middle East. Hamilton Standard propellers and cockpit navigation stations were rounded in his plane.

The type has also been operated all the way to Hong Kong, Indonesia and Australia, in particular such as Cathay Pacific, Garuda and Qantas.

5. Flight Braniff 542:

Although the Airlines Pilots Association’s conclusion that “a record of Electra safety, efficiency and economy will be achieved” was optimistically predictive, the first of the three principles in this case was not implemented.

Scheduled operation of the multi-sector route from Houston to New York with intermediate stops in Dallas and Washington, like the Braniff Flight 542, the N-9705C, the fifth L-188A carrier, which itself had been delivered just two days before, took it 28 passengers on a warm wet night on September 29, 1959. There was no hint of the fate of the aircraft. Was it there?

Of the six crew members on board, First Officer Dan Hallowell commented to Alison’s spokesman before departure: “This plane looks ridiculous.” Hallowell could not explain and the representative did not understand its implications. There are no maintenance-related anomalies in the aircraft log. Perhaps it was nothing more than a restless, inexplicable feeling.

Breaking off the runway in 2244, Electra reached its intended altitude of 15,000 feet in 13 minutes, at 2,300, maintaining a speed of 275 knots on its relatively short sector to Dallas.

After announcing his position over Leona, Texas, five minutes later he was instructed, “Please monitor Fort Worth at 120.8,” which was recorded in the magazine as “Transmission Complete, 2307.”

That was the last.

The next event was heard before it was seen by the tiny town of Buffalo, Texas, as most of its residents had already retired at night. It was an assault on the senses. The strings and muffled whistles of various heights preceded the faint roar, which ended in a thunderous cacophony. Like an exploding bomb, it subsequently visually manifested itself as a tornado of heavy metal fragments, broken fragments of some significant size ship. Finally, it entered his nostrils when the rain smelled of jet gas, all the remnants of Flight Braniff 542 and all at a time when nearly 100 L-188s typically carried 20,000 passengers daily.

Although witnesses on the ground from predominantly farmland described different sounds before the impact, perhaps the most accurate of these came not from humans but from fangs when the farmer remarked, “When the sound came, every dog-kun miles around began to howl.” Why did it affect them so much?

The ground to some extent reflected the consequences of what should happen in the air, what caused the fall and collapse of the airliner. The crater, which seemed to be bored by the bow, contained the front of the fuselage and several places dismembered from the rest of the body, and behind it, first in periodic feet and then in miles, were its remains: a central cabin of 225 feet ; vertical tail, rudder, internal stabilizers and tail cone at 230 feet; a large section of the right wing at an altitude of 1760 feet; starboard stabilizer at 2020 feet; port stabilizer at 4,080 feet; a four-engine number spanning 5,300 feet; left wing, engine racer number two cover and propeller, and engine number four at 8,640 feet; screw and reducer number one at 9,600 feet; and a nine-inch section of hydraulic line number two of the fuel tank at a distance of 2.3 miles. Indeed, a 17-mile linear image of the wreckage stretched from the crater to LEON-THIEF.

Карпатлівая рэканструкцыя паказала, што “Электра” скідала левае крыло, пасля чаго ўспыхнуў агонь і самалёт без канечнасцяў апусціўся на зямлю, разбіўшыся ад сіл гравітацыі.

Частка расследавання была сканцэнтравана на наземных сведчаннях сведкаў і заявах пра высокі гук у небе, перш чым яны нават даведаліся пра яго паходжанне, мабыць, паказваючы на ​​тое, што паваротныя шрубы па нейкіх прычынах дасягнулі звышгукавой хуткасці. Фізіялагічныя рэакцыі сабак калгасных куноў таксама нельга было скідаць з рахункаў, бо яны рэагавалі так, быццам гук прабіў ім вушы. Але як і чаму? І якое, увогуле, усё гэта было звязана з каментарыем першага афіцэра перад вылетам пра “пацешную аздабленне самалёта?” Гэта магло быць вынікам няспраўнасці аўтапілота ці стабілізатара альбо нават дысбалансу паліва?

І якое значэнне мелі пашкоджанні паказалі, што шруба нумар адзін круцілася пад вуглом да 35 градусаў ад сваёй звычайнай плоскасці кручэння? Ці не было б гэта натуральным вынікам напружання і напружання левага крыла, калі яно адарвалася? Ці гэта была прычына?

Тым не менш вычарпальнае расследаванне і аналіз не выявілі канчатковага адказу – верагоднай прычыны – і, такім чынам, не могуць быць рэкамендаваны змены канструкцыі для выпраўлення нявызначанай памылкі альбо недахопу.

Да 17 сакавіка 1960 г. быў зроблены выснова, што толькі малаверагоднае паўтарэнне аварыі Braniff Electra можа вызначыць прычыну яе гібелі і страты ўсіх на борце. І ў гэты дзень адбылося менавіта гэта.

6. Рэйс 710 на паўночны захад:

Самалёт N-122US, па іроніі лёсу, быў першым L-188C, пастаўленым на паўночна-заходнюю авіякампанію, і прайшоў рэгістрацыю менш за 1800 гадзін, але ён доўга не будзе эксплуатавацца. Выканаўшы палёт 710 17 сакавіка 1960 г., ён ахапіў першы з двух сегментаў – ад Мінеапаліса да Чыкага-Мідуэй – за адну гадзіну, футравыя хвіліны; аднак ён быў хутка зноў у паветры, цяпер прызначаны ў Маямі, у 1438 па мясцовым часе, пры агульнай вазе 105000 фунтаў, дасягнуўшы 18000 футаў і праз сем хвілін кансультаваў Цэнтр Індыянапаліса, што гэта было над Мілфардам, штат Ілінойс.

Прыступаючы да наступнага радыёкропкі ў Шатландыі, штат Індыяна, у 1513 г. ён параіў: “Падтрымліваць 18 000 і ацэньваць” Боўлінг Грын “(Кентукі) у 1525 г.”

Праз пятнаццаць хвілін рэйсу 710 было дадзена ўказанне звязацца з Мемфіс-цэнтрам на частаце 124,6, на што ён адказаў: “Прызнана”. Гэта была апошняя перадача.

Надвор’е было яснае, але, зыходзячы з наступных падзей, відавочна, не вельмі супрацоўнічала. Пранікаючы ў магутны, непрадказальны феномен, які атрымаў назву “чыстая паветраная турбулентнасць” (CAT), Electra нібыта была здзейснена да бездапаможнай ахвяры, выпусціўшы дзве зацяжкі белага дыму, а затым вялізную чорную, бо яе лёс быў зафіксаваны як два, наземныя сведкі выбухі.

Зменшаны да паветрана-дэсантнай ампутацыі, самалёт скідаў правае крыло і захаваў крыху больш, чым кулак левага. Першапачаткова забыўшыся, бясконцае цела працягвала прамалінейны шлях, але, не здолеўшы падняць уздым і бездапаможнае стварыць або выправіць банк без элеронаў, яно ўжо не змагло прыручыць адну з трох восяў палёту братоў Райт так навукова вызначыў 57 гадоў таму і паддаўся нестабільнасці паветра ўверсе і сіле цяжару ўнізе.

Шчыруючы, зацягваючы дым і праліваючы канструкцыю, ён нырнуў, як ракета “паветра-зямля”, пагрузіўшыся ў поле соі каля Тэл-Сіці, штат Індыяна, з хуткасцю 618 міль / гадзіну. Вымяраючы снег, бруд, гразь і расліннасць, ён больш чым адэкватна прадэманстраваў Трэці закон руху Ньютана – “на кожнае дзеянне існуе роўная і процілеглая рэакцыя” – калі зямля рыкашэтавала і плюнула ў паветра на 250 футаў.

Застаўся кратэр шырынёй 30 футаў і глыбінёй 12 футаў, які тлее дымам, малекулярнай дэзінтэграцыяй і знішчэннем 63 пасажыраў і экіпажа на борце, бо ніводнага пазнавальнага цела так і не было знойдзена.

Ці магла быць вінаватая турбулентнасць паветра?

Пазней у самым кратэры быў выяўлены адзіны значны абломк.

“Велізарны фюзеляж быў тэлескапіраваны і сціснуты ў масу расплаўленага металу толькі на адну траціну ад яго агульнай даўжыні”, – пісаў Серлінг у “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery” (указ., С. 49). “З 63 жыхароў засталося мала для ідэнтыфікацыі – у рэшце рэшт – больш за сем целаў. Алюмініевы фюзеляж, які быў іх труной, быў настолькі гарачы, што праз пяць дзён паравая лапата падняла кавалкі, якія ўсё яшчэ гарэлі”.

У 11 291 футах ад кропкі ўдару было адрэзанае правае крыло. Падказкі дзіўна нагадвалі няшчасны выпадак Браніфа каля Бафала, штат Тэхас. Што было агульнага паміж імі?

Адзін аспект адрозніваўся. Чыстая паветраная турбулентнасць і рэактыўны струмень больш за 100 міль / ч на вышыні 18000 футаў, вышыня палёта на паўночным захадзе, перахапілі шлях палёту пад вуглом 90 градусаў і закранулі іншыя самалёты ў наваколлі ў той час. Але ўзнікала пытанне: чаму, калі гэта было так сур’ёзна, яны не паддаліся падобнаму лёсу?

Ясная турбулентнасць паветра пры ўсіх яе ўласцівасцях раптам стала бачнай для Федэральнага авіяцыйнага агенцтва. Хоць L-188 перавысіў свае структурныя чаканні, ён адрозніваўся ад іншых паветраных самалётаў, бо ў пэўнай ступені ўяўляў сабой пераходную тэхналогію: ён аб’ядноўваў традыцыйныя падпоркі з дагэтуль нетрадыцыйнымі турбінамі, дазваляючы зацямняць межы хуткасці паміж , скажам, DC-6 і новыя ваенныя самалёты.

Падобна падлетку, які спрабуе вырасці занадта хутка, магчыма, ён увайшоў у сферу, да якой ён быў недастаткова гатовы, як гэта было ў Каметы ў высакагорных рэгіёнах з недастаткова тоўстымі датчыкамі скуры фюзеляжа. У спалучэнні з CAT, магчыма, гэта аказалася катастрафічным.

Змагаючыся з наземным самалётам, але не здолеўшы вызначыць канчатковую прычыну, FAA абрала ўтрыманне Electra ў небе, хоць і было першапачаткова абмежавана хуткасцю 275 вузлоў, а таксама дэактывацыя аўтапілота і ўстаноўка ўстойлівага да ўздзеяння рэгістратары палётаў. Калі зразумелі, што гэта была хуткасць самалёта Braniff, яна была дадаткова зніжана да 225 вузлоў.

Што менавіта адбывалася? У рэшце рэшт, самалёт прайшоў строгія перадсертыфікацыйныя выпрабаванні.

“… (Але) нідзе ў чарцяжах Electra – якія, паклаўшы канец у канец, не расцягнуліся б на сорак міль – нідзе ў справаздачах пра тысячы гадзін наземных і выпрабавальных палётаў – нідзе ў 20 000 асобных дызайнерскіх даследаванняў альбо 7 000 старонак матэматычнага разлікі – ці згадвалася нейкая навуковая з’ява, вядомая як “віравы рэжым” “, – адзначыў Серлінг (Там жа, с. 19).

7. Разгаданая таямніца:

Як лабараторныя (тэарэтычныя), так і паветраныя (практычныя) даследаванні і аналіз, часткі Праграмы дасягненняў Lockheed Electra альбо LEAP, высвятлялі таямніцу аварый Браніфа і Паўночна-Захаду і прадугледжвалі два штодзённыя дзесяцігадзінныя палёты, у якіх розныя нагрузкі, параметры , і былі вывучаны хуткасці, нават зацямняючы чырвоныя лініі. Першапачаткова яны толькі даказалі канструктыўную цэласнасць L-188, пакуль нарэшце не ўсплыў ключ, які нават не паддаецца інтэрпрэтацыі.

Энергія распаўсюджваецца і аказвае сваё ўздзеянне ў канчатковым пункце прызначэння. У выпадку з Electra было ўстаноўлена, што цяжкія рухальныя нагрузкі аказалі значна большы ўплыў на яго рухавікі падвеснага рухавіка падчас моцнага пранікнення турбулентнасці, чым паказалі структурныя выпрабаванні, ствараючы сілу згінання крыла адтуль да кончыкаў, што было даказана падчас лётных выпрабаванняў над Каліфарнійскія горы, якія выклікалі ўздым сілы тарнада, атрымалі назву “хвалі Сьеры”. Турбулентнасць, якую яны стварылі, разбурыла кіраванне палётам самалёта і яго структуру.

Прагрэсіўны ўрон ад рухавікоў нумар адзін і нумар чатырох, адпаведна, самалётаў Braniff і Паўночна-Заход быў вынікам некантраляванага трапятання. Дыяганальныя пераломы пілападобных зубоў паказвалі на наяўнасць разбурэнняў перад канструкцыяй – цыклічных, паўтаральных і магутных ваганняў – але адказаць нельга было, чаму адсутнасць турбулентнасці над Буфала, штат Тэхас, выклікала тую ж з’яву, што і гэтая над Тэл-Сіці, штат Індыяна. Што менавіта выклікала такое ж разбуральнае трапятанне ў непадобных на атмасферу выпадках?

Далей фокус перамясціўся з непагадзі на самі рухавікі рухавіка, якія супрацьстаялі адзін аднаму пры ўсталёўцы на адпаведныя задзейнічаныя Electras.

Аналіз таго, што засталося з васьмі шруб, паказаў, што паваротны рухавік нумар адзін на самалёце Braniff чамусьці хістаўся. Звышхуткасны каталізатар альбо стан прывялі да таго, што наканечнікі дасягнулі гукавой хуткасці, і з гэтым усведамленнем загарэлася святло ісціны. Абедзве аварыі былі выкліканыя рэжымам кручэння вінта.

Паколькі шруба мае гіраскапічныя тэндэнцыі, ён застаецца ў сваёй плоскасці кручэння, пакуль і калі ён не выцеснецца знешняй крыніцай, не прымушаючы прытрымлівацца закона “роўнай і супрацьлеглай рэакцыі” Ньютана. У гэтым выпадку вінт працягваў круціцца ў адным кірунку, у той час як рэжым індукаванага кручэння здымаў яго з раўнамернага месца кручэння і прымушаў вібраваць у іншым.

Калі ён не змочваецца, не здымаецца ці не змяняецца, ён развівае дзіка хісткі гіраскоп, перадаючы сваю энергію той, на якую ён усталяваны, як хвароба, якая распаўсюджвае і заражае ўсё на сваім шляху – у дадзеным выпадку крыло ці, дакладней, вонкавае крыло. У аварыі Браніфа гэта была левая. У аварыі на паўночным захадзе яна была правільнай.

Няспраўнасць абцякальніка стойкі, якая адбылася ў рухавіку нумара чатырох апошняй Electre, ліквідавала ўтрыманне, якое перашкаджала рухавіку рухацца ўверх і налева, што прывяло да ненармальных усенакіраваных нагрузак, з-за якіх рухавік адчуваў вялікія цыклавыя руху. . Яны ў выніку ўзламалі рэдуктар рэдуктара вінта.

Вынік, як прадэманстравала восьмая па шкале мадэль L-188 у аэрадынамічнай трубе NASA Langley, быў выказаны наступным чынам.

“З мадэляваным пашкоджаннем у галіне гондола адбылася аўтапрэцэсія шрубы, самастойны і хісткі рух спінінга, які ўключае сувязь гіраскапічных і аэрадынамічных сіл”.

Канструктыўная недапрацоўка самалёта не абавязкова пацягнула за сабой недастатковую трываласць гоначнай канструкцыі, але адсутнасць дастатковай калянасці. Пацярпелы ад папярэдніх пашкоджанняў, ён ператварыўся ў ланцуговую рэакцыю разбурэння. Пасля таго, як яго рухавік хістаўся, у яго таксама з’явіўся вінт, і, калі яго рух перадаваўся вонкаваму крылу, ён згінаўся, пырхаў і шчоўкнуў, пакінуўшы бяздрыжны фюзеляж пад уладай гравітацыі.

Хоць відавочная турбулентнасць паветра, відавочна, стала той іскрай, якая запаліла ланцуговую рэакцыю ў аварыі на паўночным захадзе, можна толькі меркаваць, што жорсткая пасадка, не адзначаная ў журнале, служыла аналагічным узгараннем у Браніфа. Не заўважана, ці магло гэтае ранняе, пакуль не катастрафічнае хістанне, стаць прычынай каментарыя першага афіцэра аб тым, што самалёт “абрэзаўся смешна?”

І сабакі не хлусяць, не кажуць інакш. Паколькі звышгукавая хуткасць наканечнікаў шрубы выдаляла балючыя вышыні, якія практычна пранізвалі іх гіперчувствітельные вушы, яны рэагавалі калектыўным выццём.

Праграма мадыфікацыі, якая фінансуецца кампаніяй Lockheed у 25 мільёнаў долараў і прымяняецца як да самалётаў, якія эксплуатуюцца, так і на канвееры, пацягнула за сабой канструктыўныя ўдасканаленні, якія прывялі да сяміпрацэнтнага павелічэння калянасці, а таксама ўстаноўку верхняй і ніжняй распорак, якія атрымалі назву “вібраізалятары”. былі ўсталяваны ў рэдуктарнай скрынцы рухавіка. Яго паветразаборнік быў перамешчаны, і новыя, больш трывалыя падвескі рухавіка прадухілілі бакавыя руху, усё гэта прывяло да 1400 фунтаў канструктыўнай масы.

Самалёт быў пераатэставаны FAA 30 снежня 1960 г., і для павышэння даверу грамадскасці, які, зразумела, быў азмрочаны ў выніку аварый, авіякампаніі перагледзелі свае мадыфікаваныя самалёты “Electra IIs” і “Super Electras”.

8. Заход праграмы:

Апошнія тры з 170 вырабленых L-188A і -C, зарэгістраваныя PK-GLA, -GLB і -GLC, былі набыты кампаніяй Garuda Indonesian Airways, у той час як тыпу было дадзена другое жыццё ў якасці авіялайнераў Цэнтральнай і Паўднёвай Амерыкі, грузавыя лайнеры, пажарныя бамбардзіроўшчыкі і ў якасці платформы ракеты-падводніка патрульнага самалёта P-3C Orion. Кампанія Reeve Aleutian Airways, якая базуецца на Алясцы, эксплуатавала тры чыстыя пасажырскія і камбінаваныя прыклады на рэгулярных рэйсах яшчэ на пачатку стагоддзя, дэманструючы трываласць і надзейнасць гэтага тыпу.

Але ў якасці асноўнага моста паміж поршнем і чыста рэактыўнай эпохай яго перасячэнне было кароткім, і яго хутка замянілі падобныя на Sud-Aviation SE.210 Caravelle, Boeing 727-100 і Douglas DC-9 -10 і -30 да сярэдзіны 1960-х гг.


Хардзі, Майкл. “Сусветны грамадзянскі самалёт з 1945 г.” Нью-Ёрк: Сыны Чарльза Скрыбнера, 1979.

Інгельс, Дуглас Дж. “L-1011 TriStar і гісторыя Lockheed”. Фолбрук, Каліфорнія: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1973.

Практар, Джон; Махат, Майк; і Кодэра, Крэйг. “From Props to Jets: Commercial Aviation’s Transition to the Jet Age, 1952-1962.” North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2010.

Serling, Robert J. “The Electra Story: Aviation’s Greatest Mystery.” New York: Bantam Books, 1963.

Upton, Jim. “Lockheed L-188 Electra.” North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press Publishers and Wholesalers, 1999.


Aviation industry

We live in an age where saving time is more important than saving money. Perhaps that is why air travel, which was previously reserved exclusively for wealthy people or emergencies, is now used alongside competitors, i.e. rail and road transport. The number of passengers flying has increased several times over the last couple of decades, and the number is still growing. Decades ago, only mature, developed and wealthy states, such as the US, European countries, Japan, Singapore, etc., had air communication with major domestic cities as well as international destinations. But now the number of countries connected by air has increased sharply, and this is not the end. Domestic air communication has also increased, connecting many cities of different countries. Not only developed and rich countries, but also developing countries such as China, India, Brazil, etc., have gained a lot due to the growth of air communication. Not only has communication improved, but the experience of air travel has also improved. Let’s look at aspects that have changed significantly over the last few decades.

Travel time

Air travel, which from the beginning was the fastest mode of transport, has become even faster over time. The flight from the Australian subcontinent to London was and remains one of the longest flights known. In the late 1950s, the cities of Sydney and London were connected by Qantas Airways. Then the trip was a 4-day, with a whopping 55 hours in the air and a flight that touched the ground in six places besides Sydney and London. The airline still operates between countries, but differently. The new Kangaroo Route 2018, as Qantas Airways calls it, connects Perth with London without stopping or touching anywhere else. The journey now takes just 17 hours in the air, overcoming more than 9,000 miles in the air in one takeoff.

Not even the most time is in the air and does not cover the longest distance in one takeoff. As aircraft became more efficient and technologically advanced, flights with even more air time and travel became possible. Another Qatar Airlines venture between Auckland and Doha is now the longest flight, overcoming a staggering 9025 miles per run (or flight) that lasts in the air from 16 to 18 hours. Imagine how long passengers clung to their seats!


There is a reason why the early flight period was called the “Golden Age” of flying. The price, which the passengers later paid for the fare, was reimbursed by the food and drinks served during the voyage. But the airlines had their problems. Leaflets of the early 1920s dealt with weight problems when there were cases where passengers were weighed before boarding. The same rule applied to food, which limited the amount of food carried to heaven. As the planes improved and the trips became longer, the food became hotter. Food was more than just survival. In the early 1930s there were kitchens that could provide hot meals and a dining room where passengers gathered and celebrated in the air. Then, in the 1940s, came the era of frozen foods, thanks to which various dishes were served in the sky. As the aircraft increased, the number of passengers flying increased, and the space for storing air food increased. But now personalization has become important compared to offering unified exotic dishes for the entire group of passengers. Airlines now allow passengers to order food of their choice before boarding, which will be delivered directly to their location. For example, iFLEAT is a mobile service that delivers food ordered by passengers from the restaurant directly to its seats. The service is now linked to Air Berlin, and in the future it plans to merge with more airlines. Although catering providers will feel the impact of this service during the flight, it is a win-win situation for the passenger as the person gets food to choose from as well as the airline as they may be able to keep their customers by allowing them to do what they like.

Entertainment and communication in flight

A recent survey of airline passengers stated that Wi-Fi is more important than food for passengers traveling by air. It shows how connected people are to the internet. And even airlines are trying to retain existing customers and attract more customers by providing entertainment and connecting to them. Many airlines already offer Wi-Fi on at least some flights, but travelers have to buy the service. Airlines provide free internet access only to first class travelers. Names in the aviation industry, such as Etihad, Finnair, Lufthansa, etc., provide Internet access throughout or part of the fleet, but at the expense of passengers. On the other hand, few such as Emirates, Turkish Airlines, Hong Kong Airlines, etc. that provide their passengers with free Wi-Fi. There are many travelers who pray for this to happen to all airlines and I also hope it happens soon. As the number of travelers is expected to double by 2035, according to the market research company, the airlines will make many more changes to attract new passengers and retain existing ones.


The three best cheap places to stay

If you want to save money on vacation, you should choose a cheap place. Which countries are cheap but at the same time provide exciting tourist attractions and well-developed tourist attractions? In this article you will read about the three main cheap places to relax. Here they are:

1. Ko Samui, Thailand

Koh Samui is one of the largest islands in Thailand. It is located in the Gulf of Thailand and attracts more than 1.5 million tourists a year. It is famous for its white sandy beaches, blue and turquoise waters, coral reefs and coconut trees. Ko Samui is the second most developed tourist area in Thailand and it is popular not only among tourists but also among retirees and expats who come here to enjoy the climate, the natural environment and the slow lifestyle.

And what about the prices on Samui? Expect to pay about $ 30 for a good double room or bungalow. Street food is very cheap and delicious – you can get nice food for $ 2.

2. Riviera Maya, Mexico

The Riviera Maya is a tourist area that covers the Caribbean coast of the Mexican state of Quintana Roa. It is arguably one of the best cheap vacation spots near the United States. The Riviera Maya features fabulous beaches, world-class diving sites, cenotes, archeological sites such as the Mayan ruins and numerous international-class beach resorts.

In most places a basic double room should cost you about $ 40-50 per night. However, the Riviera Maya offers a very wide choice of accommodation, and in some places you can get a comfortable room even smaller than that. Decent food at a local diner will cost you about $ 10.

3. Fiji

If you want to go on a cheap vacation in the South Pacific, consider Fiji. It is one of the cheapest destinations in this expensive region and has a developed tourist infrastructure. Viti Levu and Vanua Levu are the largest islands in Fiji. Nadi, located on the west side of the island of Viti Levu, is the tourist center of the country.

Fiji is an ideal place for lovers of beach, scuba diving, scuba diving and people who love adventure travel (the country has great places for rafting).

Expect to pay about $ 30 for a decent double room. If you want to enjoy more privacy and tranquility, consider more expensive resort islands.

Traveling to cheap destinations is one of the best ways to save money on vacation. To save even more, choose a budget hotel (use Google to read reviews and choose the best one), eat like a local (restaurants in tourist areas are usually very inflated) and fly a cheap airline. Have fun and enjoy your vacation!


Types of air heaters

The ecological systems of light aircraft are usually bottomless, somewhat simple and complex at the same time. Air conditioners are usually only available in high-end aircraft, and although heating systems work well, they have a big caveat when used. Sometimes they are not the most economical when traveling in seasonal weather.

The heater in most single-engine aircraft is nothing more than hot air directed back from the engine. In general, this can be effective, as it does not use primary gasoline taken from the main gas tank in the aircraft, such as that found in the Cessna172. This is achieved by a casing that surrounds the exhaust pipes to collect radiant heat. The shroud is connected to a tube that runs through a firewall. Depending on the aircraft it is then headed to the windshield and down to the steering pedals. By pulling the lever to turn on the heating, you simply open the shutter or valve in the junction box, which allows hot air to pass through. This can be especially helpful when traveling in cold weather when you are flying from country to state.

This system has several advantages. It’s cheap, easy enough, and at least when the engine warms up, the cabin gets as hot as Miami in July. Not so good in hot summers, but not so bad in cold winter weather.

But there are two main drawbacks. Any smoke around the engine easily passes straight into the cabin when the valve is open. Even worse, if the exhaust leak escapes, the heater will let into the cabin carbon monoxide – a poisonous gas that has no odor or color. The only way to prevent this is not to use a heater. But sometimes it is necessary, so you should invest in inexpensive carbon monoxide detectors.

If you use heat only from the engine and drive far, it is wise to fit into a carbon monoxide detector. At one point you could fly, the next moment – an unplanned fall, because in the cabin of your plane you just did not have a carbon monoxide detector. Yes, you need to warm up to fly the plane equally safely, but you should always weed out the pros and cons and make sure you don’t take in too much carbon monoxide into the cabin. Be smart, fly safe and land home.


The Fall of Pratt and Whitney and the Rise of Ge: The Troubled A320 Indigo

Indigo Airlines, India’s largest budget airline (LCC), is headquartered in Gurgaon, New Delhi. Now the airlines plan to replace their fleet of Airbus A320-neo engines with GE engines after technical problems with Pratt & Whitney engines.

Currently, the budget carrier has ambitious plans to expand operations in the regional aviation market, as well as low-cost international long-distance flights. Indigo Airlines, which currently holds the largest market share in the domestic aviation sector, has placed orders for 430 NEO aircraft (a new engine variant) to meet target expectations. The new aircraft will help to overcome long flight distances, as well as economic savings on fuel costs with a margin of 15%. Total passenger capacity 189.

Budget carrier Indigo (operating under the auspices of Interglobe Aviation) is one of Airbus’ largest customers. Indigo is also the first airline in India and Asia to operate an Airbus A320-neo aircraft. The low-cost airline is currently suffering from the loss of seven narrow-body aircraft. The aircraft was unable to remain in service due to technical problems encountered by the Pratt & Whitney PW1100 turbofan engines. Indigo Airlines has entered into a contract with Pratt & Whitney to provide airlines with a complete replacement in situations involving engine problems. Slower deliveries by Pratt & Whitney will further hamper Indigo airlines ’efforts to launch ground flights. Indigo currently operates a fleet of 137 Airbus A320 aircraft, including 22, Airbus A320-NEO aircraft, and has placed orders for a total of 430 A320-NEO aircraft. Due to an engine breakdown, the airline canceled several flights. In addition, problems caused by engine failures have led to serious delays in the delivery of Airbus new aircraft to its customers.

Indigo continues to receive the necessary operations and technical support, including the provision of spare engines to help mitigate operational impacts. In addition, Pratt & Whitney has confirmed that the design changes will take a year to create new engines.

Airbus has provided two engine variants with the Airbus A320-neo, which include GE (GE (CGM) LEAP 1-A) engines or Pratt & Whitney engines (Pratt & Whitney Pure Power 1100G). The problems faced by Pratt & Whitney engines have forced many airlines to change their purchase orders. Many of the first airlines to adopt Pratt & Whitney engines, such as Indigo, Go Air and Lufthansa, allowed the engines to spin and run for two to three minutes longer before carrying the airlines.

In addition, PW1100G motors observe a phenomenon known as rotor tilt. This phenomenon occurs when temperature fluctuations in the engine lead to a combination of certain parts (shaft, rotor blades) in the engine. The phenomenon of rotor tilt leads to deterioration of engine efficiency, engine life, service life of rotor blades and engine compressor. As a result of this phenomenon, Indigo Airlines has issued 30,000 altitude restrictions for Airbus A320-neo aircraft. Increasing the height leads to the disconnection of the exhaust system from the engine (which helps to start the engine and increase the pressure in the cabin). This, in turn, affects the anti-icing system installed on the aircraft. The use of GE engines is expected to help the airline achieve cost-effectiveness, reliability, and excellent service in its operations.


History of aircraft development

On December 17, 1903, Wilbur Wright watched in amazement as his brother Orville Wright took off and landed the world’s first airplane flight. The flight lasted twelve seconds and covered a distance of one hundred and twenty feet, which is less than the length of many of today’s commercial airliners. On that historic day, the Wright brothers flew three more flights, the longest of which was eight hundred and fifty-two feet, a record flight piloted by Wilbur, fifty-nine seconds. The brothers faced many obstacles that they had to overcome before creating a successful aircraft. One obstacle was to find an engine that was light enough but powerful enough to lift the plane off the ground. Another problem they faced was keeping the plane a stabilized witch, which they reached by moving themselves from side to side. Both brothers also had to design their own aircraft propeller.

Director Bernoulli is perhaps the most important factor that allows an aircraft to leave the ground. The shape of the wings allows air to move faster along the top of the witch’s wings and creates a rise. A lot of force is acting on the plane to allow it to take off and fly. One of these forces is traction. Traction also provides the aircraft with the necessary speed needed to create lift, which is another force. Thrust is created by propellers and motors. Lifting force is another force that is created when air moves faster on the top of an airplane wing than on a bottom generating lift. The heavier the aircraft, the more traction it takes to lift. Resistance is an opposing force that can be pressed and can be reduced depending on the shape of the plane. The emphasis is created by each part of the aircraft, it is the friction of the skin between the air molecules and the hard surface of the aircraft. The force of gravity acts on the planes just like a paper plane that pulls it back to the ground and acts against all 3 other forces.

The shape of a bird’s wing is similar to the shape of an airplane’s wing, allowing it to fly on a slide, however a bird can quickly change direction due to its ability to tilt its wings in different directions. The overall body shape of the bird in flight is also very aerodynamic and creates minimal drag. The propeller acts as a rotating wing and pulls the aircraft forward, providing it with the necessary thrust to lift the ground. The Wright brothers created the first propeller in order to lift their plane off the ground. A helicopter differs from an airplane in that it can take off and land vertically as well as hover in place. The angle at which the helicopter blades are directed allows the helicopter to fly and change direction. The flight of a helicopter also depends on the speed at which the blades rotate and in which direction.

Jet engines provide the aircraft with a large amount of forward motion, allowing the aircraft to move very quickly. Air is sucked into the jet engine through the front fan. The air pressure is then raised by a compressor and sprayed with fuel. Then an electric spark ignites, which explodes through the nozzle behind, causing a huge thrust forward. Rocket engines are reaction-controlled engines. A good example of how a rocket works is a blown up balloon. The balloon does not move when it is closed, but when released the back shoots forward. The balloon fires forward because it is a reaction of an air shot from the back, just as a rocket fires forward when fuel is thrown into the back.


Boeing 747: the end of an era

The Boeing 747, often referred to as the “Jumbo Jet,” was an excellent commercial aircraft for its time. The world’s first wide-body aircraft to be produced, the so-called “Queen of the Sky,” boasted an upper deck and passenger capability that remained unsurpassed for decades.

The 747-100 first entered service in 1970 with the now defunct PanAm. The -200 model, which followed in 1971, featured more powerful engines and higher takeoff mass (MTOW). After that, Boeing cut the 747SP (Special Performance), which had a larger range, and entered service in 1976.

Boeing then launched the -300 model in 1980, resulting in research to increase the 747’s capacity. The -300 featured fuselage caps and a stretched upper deck. This variant, along with -100, -200 and SP, was collectively referred to as the 747 “Classic”. Now is the time for a more significant update.

The most common version, the 747-400, went into service in 1989. This variant differed, along with the stretched upper deck -300, more economical engines and was the first with a glass cabin with 2 crews. requirement for flight engineer and is also the most common option in operation. The -400 has a larger wingspan than the classics, and was equipped with lionfish that reduced resistance, and is the most common aesthetic feature used to distinguish the variant from the -300.

747-400 for many years dominated the long-haul market. It was operated by almost all major airlines in the world, dominating every major international airport. Only in the late 2000s -400 had to face competition, after the entry into service of the largest Airbus A380. Eventually Boeing responded by launching a new larger, more economical option.

The third generation 747-8 was released in 2009 with Lufthansa and entered service in 2012. This option boasted a composite fuselage, as shown in the 787, and more economical engines. He also noted an increase in payload due to the stretched fuselage and upper deck. Unfortunately, he failed to capture the market and could not match anything, much less surpass the success of -400.

The time of the four-engine 747 is coming to an end, and an increasing number of airlines are abandoning this type in favor of more efficient twin-engine aircraft. The latter option for passengers, the -8, failed to attract as much sales as Boeing had hoped, earning less than 50 orders mostly from 3 airlines, as ATVs can no longer compete with the 777, 787 and Airbus A350 models.

Despite this, the 747 enjoys a great reputation as one of the most successful airliners in history. As we see that in its place is increasing the number of smaller aircraft with two engines, the industry will always remember the beauty and grace with which the Boeing 747 adorned our skies.