History of aircraft development

On December 17, 1903, Wilbur Wright watched in amazement as his brother Orville Wright took off and landed the world’s first airplane flight. The flight lasted twelve seconds and covered a distance of one hundred and twenty feet, which is less than the length of many of today’s commercial airliners. On that historic day, the Wright brothers flew three more flights, the longest of which was eight hundred and fifty-two feet, a record flight piloted by Wilbur, fifty-nine seconds. The brothers faced many obstacles that they had to overcome before creating a successful aircraft. One obstacle was to find an engine that was light enough but powerful enough to lift the plane off the ground. Another problem they faced was keeping the plane a stabilized witch, which they reached by moving themselves from side to side. Both brothers also had to design their own aircraft propeller.

Director Bernoulli is perhaps the most important factor that allows an aircraft to leave the ground. The shape of the wings allows air to move faster along the top of the witch’s wings and creates a rise. A lot of force is acting on the plane to allow it to take off and fly. One of these forces is traction. Traction also provides the aircraft with the necessary speed needed to create lift, which is another force. Thrust is created by propellers and motors. Lifting force is another force that is created when air moves faster on the top of an airplane wing than on a bottom generating lift. The heavier the aircraft, the more traction it takes to lift. Resistance is an opposing force that can be pressed and can be reduced depending on the shape of the plane. The emphasis is created by each part of the aircraft, it is the friction of the skin between the air molecules and the hard surface of the aircraft. The force of gravity acts on the planes just like a paper plane that pulls it back to the ground and acts against all 3 other forces.

The shape of a bird’s wing is similar to the shape of an airplane’s wing, allowing it to fly on a slide, however a bird can quickly change direction due to its ability to tilt its wings in different directions. The overall body shape of the bird in flight is also very aerodynamic and creates minimal drag. The propeller acts as a rotating wing and pulls the aircraft forward, providing it with the necessary thrust to lift the ground. The Wright brothers created the first propeller in order to lift their plane off the ground. A helicopter differs from an airplane in that it can take off and land vertically as well as hover in place. The angle at which the helicopter blades are directed allows the helicopter to fly and change direction. The flight of a helicopter also depends on the speed at which the blades rotate and in which direction.

Jet engines provide the aircraft with a large amount of forward motion, allowing the aircraft to move very quickly. Air is sucked into the jet engine through the front fan. The air pressure is then raised by a compressor and sprayed with fuel. Then an electric spark ignites, which explodes through the nozzle behind, causing a huge thrust forward. Rocket engines are reaction-controlled engines. A good example of how a rocket works is a blown up balloon. The balloon does not move when it is closed, but when released the back shoots forward. The balloon fires forward because it is a reaction of an air shot from the back, just as a rocket fires forward when fuel is thrown into the back.


Boeing 747: the end of an era

The Boeing 747, often referred to as the “Jumbo Jet,” was an excellent commercial aircraft for its time. The world’s first wide-body aircraft to be produced, the so-called “Queen of the Sky,” boasted an upper deck and passenger capability that remained unsurpassed for decades.

The 747-100 first entered service in 1970 with the now defunct PanAm. The -200 model, which followed in 1971, featured more powerful engines and higher takeoff mass (MTOW). After that, Boeing cut the 747SP (Special Performance), which had a larger range, and entered service in 1976.

Boeing then launched the -300 model in 1980, resulting in research to increase the 747’s capacity. The -300 featured fuselage caps and a stretched upper deck. This variant, along with -100, -200 and SP, was collectively referred to as the 747 “Classic”. Now is the time for a more significant update.

The most common version, the 747-400, went into service in 1989. This variant differed, along with the stretched upper deck -300, more economical engines and was the first with a glass cabin with 2 crews. requirement for flight engineer and is also the most common option in operation. The -400 has a larger wingspan than the classics, and was equipped with lionfish that reduced resistance, and is the most common aesthetic feature used to distinguish the variant from the -300.

747-400 for many years dominated the long-haul market. It was operated by almost all major airlines in the world, dominating every major international airport. Only in the late 2000s -400 had to face competition, after the entry into service of the largest Airbus A380. Eventually Boeing responded by launching a new larger, more economical option.

The third generation 747-8 was released in 2009 with Lufthansa and entered service in 2012. This option boasted a composite fuselage, as shown in the 787, and more economical engines. He also noted an increase in payload due to the stretched fuselage and upper deck. Unfortunately, he failed to capture the market and could not match anything, much less surpass the success of -400.

The time of the four-engine 747 is coming to an end, and an increasing number of airlines are abandoning this type in favor of more efficient twin-engine aircraft. The latter option for passengers, the -8, failed to attract as much sales as Boeing had hoped, earning less than 50 orders mostly from 3 airlines, as ATVs can no longer compete with the 777, 787 and Airbus A350 models.

Despite this, the 747 enjoys a great reputation as one of the most successful airliners in history. As we see that in its place is increasing the number of smaller aircraft with two engines, the industry will always remember the beauty and grace with which the Boeing 747 adorned our skies.


Newark Airport Parking – How to Save on Airport Parking

Parking at Newark Airport can be a challenge for a poorly trained passenger due to the large number of travelers using the airport. Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR), along with JFK International Airport (New York Kennedy) and LaGuardia International Airport (LGA), includes the busiest airport system in the United States. The EWR-JFK-LGA network, which serves New York’s New Jersey metropolitan area, ranks 2nd in London Airport’s network in terms of the total number of passengers passing annually. In 2009, more than 35 million passengers moved through Newark Liberty Airport.

More than 17,000 parking spaces are available at Newark Airport for airport employees, passengers and the general public. This number includes hourly, short-term and long-term parking both at the airport complex and outside the airport. Parking at Newark Airport shouldn’t be a problem once you learn your options.

EWR short-term or hourly parking is available at Newark Airport’s A, B and C car parks and costs $ 3 for 30 minutes or $ 6 per hour, with a daily limit of $ 33. In fact it is the best and most convenient option as the parties are located right to the central terminal if you just send someone and pick it up and will be at the airport for no more than 1 or 2 hours.

Three nearby Newark Airport parking lots provide daily parking prices that are well below short-term. Daily parking on lots P1 and P3 is $ 24. Daily parking in the airport garage, called P4, is a bit more expensive – $ 27. This is still a good option because of the convenient locations if you won’t be around for a day or two.

Long-term parking at Newark Airport should be your choice for longer trips, such as a 7-day vacation in Florida. The airport offers a long-term economy parking lot (P6) located on the north side of the airport along the port of St. Stein. Parking here costs about $ 18 a day, which is still expensive, especially if you’re looking for a 2-3 week travel itinerary.

The next option, if you want to save as much as is spent on the cost of parking at the airport, would be private plots and garages outside the airport. There are several nearby parking facilities that you may want to check out, such as the Avistar and AirPark facilities along McClellan Street, as well as the Avistar and FastTrack locations along Carnegie Avenue. , have good staff and are equipped to assist the disabled and provide round-the-clock service and safety. Sky Park FastTrack service offers the most competitive prices, but you should check out individual garages for discounts, coupons and free parking promotions that are available daily to guests.

In any case, check and confirm the rates before placing an order. You can ask questions about security, valet service, transfer intervals, garage fare differences, weekday promotions, etc. After choosing a parking spot at Newark Airport be sure to book it before the actual flight. Air travel for business or pleasure is something that most people like, even the most frustrated among travelers. Don’t let the worries of parking at the airport ruin your experience.


A brief history of aircraft

In this modern time, aviation was the most important mode of transport. It plays an important role in the economy – it creates jobs, allows businesses to expand to other countries and helps develop other industries, such as tourism. In addition, aviation unites people around the world and strengthens ties between cultures and countries.

This is such a useful invention for the whole world. But as unlikely as it may seem, about two centuries ago people thought that airplanes could not be reached by mankind. The Wright brothers proved them wrong.

On December 17, 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright did the impossible. Covering 852 feet in 59 seconds, the Wright brothers made the first successful flight in history. This breakthrough has attracted the attention of governments and car enthusiasts around the world.

Over the next decade, aircraft technology continued to grow rapidly. At this time, engineers replaced the old engines with better ones. Pilots sought to reach greater altitudes by breaking the best records in aviation as they achieved higher speeds, greater altitudes and longer flights. For them, the sky is really the limit.

Planes in the First World War

When World War I broke out, aircraft were recognized as military equipment. This has caused an increase in demand for aircraft. However, the most significant development of aircraft was during this period when the engines were upgraded. The aircraft can then take off at 130 mph, doubling the speed of pre-war aircraft.

In 1914, the aircraft was first tested in combat. In the minds of many, aircraft mean bombs, air battles and surveillance. Moreover, when the war ended, the surplus of aircraft was so huge that construction companies stopped, and demand for these aircraft fell to zero.

Subsequently, the aircraft were used in military operations. In fact, they became the main tools of World War II, which gave rise to the term “fighter jets”. In 1937, the Germans were able to produce and test the very first jet in history. Because it did not work as originally intended by the Germans, it took them another five years to produce a decent aircraft – which was too late to change the outcome of World War II.

Birth of commercial airlines

This was in 1976, when the commercial airline was represented by France and the UK. The first commercial aircraft carried more than a hundred passengers at almost twice the speed of sound. This made the 3.5-hour flight London – New York, which is much shorter. However, the cost was too expensive for the flights then to be only for the rich and privileged.

In 1996-1998, Russian and American aerospace companies collaborated with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of a research program aimed at developing a 2nd generation supersonic aircraft.

Today, aircraft flights are already available and can be used for leisure and corporate travel. Planes are everywhere and now people are taking them for granted. However, it is important to remember that this great invention was created by the courage of not so long ago predecessors to challenge the traditional beliefs of the people of the time.


Learn to fly – you will never forget your first individual flight

There are many stages on the way to reaching the wings of your private pilot, but the one you will remember by heart is your first solo. Ask any pilot about them and he will probably look sadly into the distance to remember the time when they first flew an airplane. Even veterans who have many hours in magazines never forget the day their instructor first allowed them to play.

The first solo is a transition between those who can only fly under the close supervision of an instructor and those who have enough knowledge and skills to be able to fly without assistance. Of course, this is much more, and your instructor will still be watching you closely, albeit from the ground, not from a seat next to or behind!

What is the first individual flight?

Your first flight as a pilot commander will be one aerodrome circuit. Scheme (or sample in the US) – an imaginary rectangle consisting of a runway, legs against the wind (part that flies immediately after takeoff when you climb to the height of the chain), legs of the side wind (at right angles to the left of the runway). landing strip), wind legs (parallel to the runway but in the opposite direction for take-off and landing), base leg (opposite the crosswind) and final approach, i.e. the area where you line up and descend in preparation for landing. That’s all – take off, fly one circuit and land.

Now this may seem difficult to you if you are a novice student who does not have a journal in the journal, but, as with all things, the practice becomes easier. Your first 10-20 hours of flight training will include piloting the aircraft in the air, lifting, turning down, radio calls in the vicinity of the airfield, takeoffs and landings. Once you have mastered the basic controllability of the aircraft, your instructor will conduct with you a few lessons in a chain, teaching you to fly on each leg. You will learn that you need to check on each leg which radio calls to make and when to make them.

You’ll also learn how to recognize familiar landmarks around an airfield, because without that knowledge disorientation can be surprisingly easy, and it will make the experience much less stressful in the unlikely event the Control Tower asks you to orbit over a specific moment to make room for another plane. . There was little chance of this happening as your instructor had to choose a time when the airfield would be relatively quiet and he / she had to inform the Tower that you were a student, that you were flying for the first time, but if that happened then will be prepared to help you follow the instructions of the Tower with a minimum number of flight violations.

So when should you expect your first solo and how can you prepare for it? Rest assured that your instructor will not send you alone until he or she is confident enough that you are ready. There will come a day when you have both been in “chain chasing,” that is, flying one chain after another, until the whole process from takeoff to landing is rammed into your brain and your reflexes by constant repetition. You may even get a little bored with this practice, and a smart instructor will feel this boredom and perceive it as a signal that it’s time to fly on your own.

My first solo was on July 4, 1985 at Southampton Airport (EGHI) at Grumman AA5-A, G-BFTE registration. The extended lessons were focused on multiple flight until all the steps were used. During these hands-on sessions, I landed the plane several times without the intervention of an instructor next to me. I knew that soon during such a lesson he would ask me to take a taxi to the apron and park until he released the plane and gave me the opportunity to fly the chain on my own. That particular day we flew a few chains and he told me to park in front of the Tower. Half of me hoped the lesson was over and the other half knew what would happen. Once the plane was parked, he opened the canopy and stepped onto the wing. He leaned over to the cab and said, “That’s right. Only one chain, then back here. Go. “

Before I could protest, he closed the canopy and left without looking back. I was left alone on the plane. I Called the Tower »Southampton Tower, Golf Bravo Foxtrot Tango Echo, radio check and taxi to hold. “Approval was given without a pause. I was driving. He steered to the place of detention, ran his eyes over the dashboard and once again called that he was ready to leave (take off). A few seconds later the plane was gaining speed along the runway, and I was soon in the air.

The first thing that struck me was that the plane was lighter and steered differently, and of course this was due to the fact that there was one smaller adult in the right seat! All things to focus on for the next few minutes went by in a flash. I didn’t actually stop and sum up the event until I found myself in my feet in the wind, where there was a minute or two in which I could realize I was flying on my own. I did not have time to congratulate myself when I realized that I needed to prepare for landing. Then there were radio calls and pre-landing checks, and a minute or two later I was looking at the length of the runway, concentrating on the air speed, altitude, and position of the aircraft’s hood relative to the end of the runway.

My instructor’s voice was in my head and led me down. Now I understood why we repeated this exercise so often and in different settings. I made small adjustments where necessary and soon I felt the knock of the main wheels touch the runway. After the bow wheel also dropped, I gently applied the breakage and walked back to the apron to park. When all post-landing checks were completed and the plane was turned off, I was released and walked through my apron to the main terminal building. My knees trembled a little, but with each step I grew a foot higher. By the time I got to the building, I was already beaming.

That was twenty-five years ago. You will never forget your first solo!


How to choose a flight school

There are people who are lucky enough to live near many flight schools. In this case, comparing packages becomes a very easy matter. However, no matter how many schools are available, it is important to consider some things that will ensure you get to the best school.

Just as you choose any other school, you do not choose the very first school you come across. You need to consider the aircraft used, the faculty they have, and the training conditions. Flying is fun and it has to be learning. Here are some factors to consider.


You should never expect flight lessons to be cheap. This is why most students will try to save as much as possible before starting. It is also wise to compare the prices of different schools to reduce costs.

When you compare costs, don’t just focus on rent. Other things such as fee structure, aircraft rental cost, instructor fee, handling fee, taxes, fuel prices and insurance. You need to keep an eye on any hidden costs. Ask any questions you may have and give a quote of everything you will need during the training.

Powers and experience of flight instructors

Choosing an instructor who has all the necessary credentials is very important, but it is not the only one. You need to know how long such a person has been working as an instructor. Find out where they were trained. Getting more information from alumni can be an added benefit. However, you need to know that some instructors have been working for years, but not as good. There are also fresh ones that have just hit the market and are wonderful. This means that flight hours alone should not be the determining factor. Find someone who makes it easy to communicate, and someone who will help you feel comfortable.

Reputation in relevant bodies

Make sure they meet all the standards set in your area. Bodies can help you identify the best schools around. Find out if there have been school violations in the past and if there have been any accidents. You don’t want to invest in a school with problems. An airport terminal or other similar business can also help you make that decision.

Lesson plans and course structure

Different flight schools use different rules. You need to define the rules that are used, although the end result is usually the same. The only difference is the methods used in teaching. Depending on your own schedule, you may find that some rules are quite structured and the teacher can actually change the lessons. This gives room for some flexibility and can suit anyone with a tight schedule.


Austrian Airlines charter flight to Cancun

Although passengers know that airlines fly to destinations where they need to go, whether for business, pleasure or relationships, they may not be aware that some are served only by freight; code-sharing services in which another carrier operates an aircraft; or charter arrangements that allow airlines to expand their reach to cities supported only by group or travel agencies, especially during seasonal periods of demand.

Acting as a supervisor and coach, the author experienced one such charter flight – Austrian Airlines in Cancun, Mexico – at the beginning of the winter 2006-2007 schedule. The inaugural flight of the season was observed.

1. Mexican Civil Aviation Rules

Austrian Airlines operated Passenger Handling Services / Maca in Cancun. Under Mexican civil aviation rules, all ground companies had to follow three rules.

First of all, they had to submit a letter from the carrier that had undergone processing to verify that the relevant ground company had been properly trained in coordinating the flight plan, weight and balance, ramp procedures, refueling procedures and passenger service. The letter also had to indicate the names of employees who were actually trained in these areas.

Second, they had to have copies of the relevant operating instructions concerning the aircraft. In the case of the flight to Cancun it was the one concerning the Boeing 767.

Finally, they had to draw up a registration plan manually, with the necessary location schemes, boarding passes and other materials.

2. Training in ground operations

To fulfill the training requirement, the author reviewed the Cancun Station Operation Plan, including passenger check-in procedures and centralized load control (CLC), along with the duties of the head of a cargo handling company shortly after his arrival in Mexico, and conducted two training sessions with staff the next day.

The first, a 2.5-hour training on cargo airline sheets, included an overview of centralized load control (CLC) procedures, load plans, and the creation of an input load plan based on the actual container / pallet distribution message per day (CPM). , as well as collectively filling out an example of a manual download sheet, copies of which were placed in a file at Cancun Station.

During the second session held after the departure of the flight, the author once again reviewed the CLC procedures with three staff members who were unable to attend the morning session.

3. Passenger registration

Check-in and boarding took place in Terminal 1. A small passenger service office, located behind the check-in counters of Mexicana de Aviacion, was located in the Vuelos Nacionales section (domestic flights) of Terminal 2, while the operational office was located behind. security checkpoint and on the side of the ramp of terminal 2. A free passenger shuttle, which runs periodically, connected the two buildings with the designated departure points of the terminal. Terminal 3, designed for international flights, was scheduled to be completed in March 2007.

Passenger handling services / on-duty director of Maca of Austrian Airlines in Cancun, a licensed air traffic controller, scored 15 years in the aviation and aviation industries and was proud to follow the rules.

Check-in was at the recently rebuilt, but reduced, hurricane-damaged Terminal 1, which was then occupied only by charter carriers such as Miami Air, First Choice, Air Transat and Corsairfly.

Passenger check-in began three hours before the scheduled departure time of the flight in 1640 on the counters, which were just a few meters from the entrance to the terminal. All passengers, in accordance with Mexican safety regulations, are required to conduct a manual baggage inspection prior to actual check-in.

Five places of registration were used: one for the Amadeus class (business) and four for the economy salon. The head of the passenger service and the business class check-in agent spoke Spanish, English and German, and the choice of seats provided by the MaestroDCS system, as well as any authorized upgrades, was agreed with the tour representative whose company chartered the flight.

The registration itself was done using the MaestroDCS system. During the trial, the passenger asked for a wheelchair, and it was immediately provided.

4. Boeing 767

The flight to Cancun was performed by a version of the Boeing 767-300 with extended range, the second of two tensioned fuselages, options for greater payload, the general design features of which included the following.

General description: Wide body, twin-engine, cantilever, low-wing monoplane semi-monk design, designed for commercial passenger and cargo and military needs.

Fuselage: aluminum alloy, solid construction.

Wings: they use modern skins made of aluminum alloy, which have 31 degrees of wiring and six degrees of dihedrality.

Tail: A regular outfit with surfaces on the horizontal and vertical tails.

Chassis: a hydraulically retractable, three-wheeled chassis with a two-wheeled Menasco wheel retracted forward and two four-wheel pneumatic Cleveland main gearboxes retracted inward. Both were equipped with Honeywell wheels and brakes.

Engines: two aerodynamic turbofan with a high bypass ratio mounted on the pylon to the front edge of the wing.

Design features: replacing the 727 with a large capacity, wide body, it was nevertheless optimized for sectors of route 727 with the possibility of single-end transcontinental range. At its initial stage of development, automated design (CAD) was used, the cost of which was reduced due to the parallel development of 757. Although it was not considered a single-pass aircraft, it introduced a narrower fuselage cross section than previous wide-body types, giving several benefits, including reduced parasite resistance; a two-aisle cabin in which passengers have never been in one place away from a window or aisle; compatibility of gates and ramps at smaller airports similar to 727; and advanced lightweight aluminum alloy flight surfaces, in particular fixed front side wing panel, spoilers, ailerons, fixed rear side wing panel, chassis doors, elevators and steering wheel.

Additional benefits were derived from the use of a supercritical wing, such as a high aspect ratio, aft section, developing greater lift with less resistance than in any previous wing, 22 percent thicker than in the previous decade. airliners, lighter and simpler design and larger fuel tank capacity.

Working with two turbofan with a high bypass ratio, it was able to offer higher thrust, lower specific fuel consumption, less noise, lower maintenance costs and increased reliability.

Like the simultaneously designed 757, it was guided by a two-man cabin crew.

Using a previously dry fuel tank with a central cross section, Boeing was able to offer an extended range version that required several other modifications, but the inherent extensibility of the fuselage, great capabilities of the existing wing and tail, the overall rating of the 757 pilot and its extended twin-engine certification DC-10 and L-1011 aircraft.

It offered the optimal range and capacity for Austrian Airlines ’transatlantic charter operations to and from Mexico.

The OE-LAX-registered aircraft, powered by two high-bypass Pratt and Whitney 4060 fans, Pratt and Whitney 4060, was first delivered in 1992 and had a serial number of 27095. Placed 30 Amadeus business-class passengers in , two-two-two, configuration and 200 in economy mode in a seven-sided arrangement with one extra seat in the middle shore, it featured the following maximum weights: 130,634 kilograms of zero fuel, 145,149 kilograms of landing, 186,880 kilograms of takeoff, and a ramp of 187 333 pounds.

5. Ramp

Operating as flight OS 9573 from Vienna, Austria, and Varadero, Cuba, the aircraft landed in 1515 and took off at Unauthorized Bridge Place 1, as planned, in 1520. It was hacked and the safety cones were properly positioned. At the door of the L2 was immediately placed a ladder truck, which in accordance with Mexican rules headed to this position. The passengers disembarked after a brief consultation with chef de Cabine (the main customer).

According to the Inlet Container / Pallet Distribution (CPM) report, the following load devices (ULD) for Cancun were on board: empty DPE at 11L, AKE baggage at 22L, 23L and 24L and empty DQF at 43. For except for the latter, all were in the front compartment and were single or half-width containers. The last in the aft hold was double or full width.

6. Gate of departure

All five exits were immediately on the escalator, through the checkpoint, and within walking distance. Two eateries and two shops contained the convenience of terminal passengers.

Due to the proximity of aircraft parking spaces, buses and mobile halls were not needed, and access ramps led from the level of departures to the ramp.

Consecutive boarding on a flight running OS 9574 began in 1545 with messages in both English and German, and resulted in boarding of passengers, followed by business and economy class Amadeus, the last in line numbers, starting from the back of the plane.

Landing control was computerized, seat numbers were entered into the system. After the last passenger passed through the gate in 1612, the general declaration and all the necessary lists were handed over to the cabin crew. As the Varadero station changed some locations, the report of the location (or SOM) of the passing passengers in Vienna was not entirely accurate and led to several discrepancies, but local ground staff quickly corrected them.

7. Centralized load management

In accordance with the centralized load control procedure for charter flights, the cabin crew sent the final fuel figures to Vienna via the Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACAR), and local operational staff completed and faxed a pre-printed letter with the passenger results. zone, along with the number of bags and their weight, they were all provided by the MaestroDCS registration system and sent by phone to the Terminal 2 operations office. Backup sheets were available in the event of last minute changes (LMCs) or ACARs failure.

Although initial difficulties with faxing delayed sending information to Vienna on the day of my visit, missed Atlantic tracks in the meteorology folder caused a short 15-minute delay in sending.

8. Conclusions

All of Cancun’s ground operations staff were professional, dedicated and motivated, and obviously possessed considerable knowledge and experience. Because the recycling company’s operating office had to be relocated from Terminal 1 to the then-current Terminal 2 facility due to hurricane damage, the logistical problem could only be solved with ground vehicles, but otherwise the operation was good. organized. The head of the Maca service was an excellent asset for the station and his team, and the use of German at the reception was a plus for Austrian Airlines passengers.

Cancun’s charter flight that day could not have been performed more smoothly.


6 TS flight on instruments

Good pilots should always think ahead of the plane.

You should always ask yourself what’s next. What’s the next thing you need to do after completing your current assignment?

Using 6 Ts will help you do that.

6 c:

  2. HOUR
  3. TWIST
  6. TRACK

You may not need to perform each of the individual tasks. It just depends on the procedure you are performing. Let’s look at them individually.

In this example let’s apply 6 Ts to the flight sample content. Think about each item and what’s next after that.

The cook

  • In what direction are you turning in the scheme of holding?

    • Standard or non-standard pattern: that is, turns right or left?


  • Unless ATC indicates otherwise, all input legs are one minute.

    • After crossing the level of fixation or rolling of the wings, start the timer for 1 minute of entry.

      • Be sure to adjust the output leg so that the input leg is 1 minute.

      • Depending on the wind, etc., you can have the output leg longer than 1 minute.


  • If this is VOR-based content, you may need to pervert the OBS to an entry or exit course.

    • Are you flying to a thief or away from him? If the input leg flies to the VOR, be sure to twist the OBS so that the indicator shows the “TO” indicator and selects the correct input course.


  • Do you need to adjust your power?

    • If your time does not match the input leg, you need to either apply power or reduce force. Remember you are allowed two trips around the template to get it right.


  • Do you need to talk to the ATC?

    • The ATC may ask you to report that you have overcome a fix or something similar. It really comes into play when you perform approaches or twists of procedures.


  • It’s pretty simple, but, oddly enough, a lot is forgotten about it.

    • Remember to follow the course, both incoming and outgoing.

When I fly through a sample, I ask myself about each of these things at each stage of the sample. I constantly go through each one and it keeps me in my game while staying focused and following good patterns.

When I approach one task that I don’t need to use, I just move on to the next. Remember, just be simple!

Using a 6 Ts flight on the instruments will make your life much easier if the next time you linger in hold mode or shoot, the instrument will come to a minimum in the IMC.

– Sean Hardin CFI / CFII


How much does it cost to rent a plane?

How much does it cost to rent a plane?

This is a simple question with no simple answer. The cost varies dramatically depending on the type of aircraft as well as how well equipped it is. Also: if using Hobbes time or Taha time, wet / dry how active the field is, and insurance rates can affect the final cost for you personally. Let’s look at them separately so you know what to expect.

Aircraft type:

It is clear that Cirrus will probably rent more than the Cessna 152. The owner of the aircraft must recoup the minimum direct cost of flying the aircraft, otherwise it is just a charity. You should expect a few old 150/152 to ring for less than $ 100 in total, but lately this is getting more and less when the gas speed goes up. Halfway a decently equipped 172 usually costs $ 120 to $ 150 based on the market and avionics. Your more expensive piston single jets, such as the Cirrus or Diamond, start at about $ 200 to $ 300 and from there vary in price.

How well equipped is the plane?

Avionics can affect cost, however not as strongly as aircraft type. Usually the best aircraft will also be in new aircraft, so it is difficult to assess how much aircraft aviation affects the cost of rent. By and large, if you want to get amazing opportunities, expect to pay extra dollars.

Finding an older aircraft without a lot of avionics can save you a lot of money. Many consumers require at least GPS (a number of pilots find it difficult to find a home without “Direct To”) and often autopilot, so aircraft without them reduce market demand and thus have more affordable prices. If you have such an aircraft in close proximity, you can get your own GPS unit mounted on the yoke and take it in flight. It also doesn’t take much time for it to pay off, so in case you fly quite a lot, you will get your money back very quickly.

Does he use the time of Hobbes or Thach?

Now almost all planes are rented by Hobbes, but there are probably a few places scattered around that can offer you a Tach bet. Hobbes ’time means that the counter goes as soon as the screw goes; “Tach time” means that the counter is running after the speed has passed the selected point. Essentially, that means you’re covering Hobbs taxi time and just airing “Touch”. Naturally, because of this the price of “Tach” is usually a bit higher.

If you are one of the few who has the opportunity, you need to do some calculations to determine which is the best offer. If you are from a small airport with little traffic and only a 5-minute take-off taxi from the ramp, Hobb’s time is considered the lowest price. However, if you happen to be based with a busier air port or with the fact that the FBO is away from the most frequently used runway, and then you drive and hold many times for 20-30 minutes, then the “tach” can actually be possible. considered a less expensive option or at least more predictable.

Is it a busy airport?

As recently stated, busier airports can become serious fans of the times if you don’t remember. If commercial or public transportation is plentiful, you can spend most of your rental time sitting on the taxiway or taking an extremely long finale. Nearby there is a place of my family where cargo planes of armed forces live, and often you arrive for half an hour from the beaten out way. Of course, if it was your home airport, it would quickly cut your finances.

Does he go with a good insurance plan?

I’m probably lecturing about this excessive amount, but having said that, I feel it’s really important. Most rental businesses do have insurance, but be sure to ask to see a copy of the insurance and exactly what it insures. If you find 2 comparable planes and the second is more expensive, that may be the explanation.

Most of your typical non-aviation insurance products may have inscribed terms that basically cancel out any incident due to the use of public aviation. Your health insurance will most likely not cover the medical costs of injuries sustained in an accident if you were a pilot or passenger on a GA aircraft. Your life insurance policies will probably have a fine print. If you’re not careful, you can leave those you love much smaller than you might think because of the fine print.

If the leasing equipment policy is adequate and provides enough insurance coverage to help you be safe, you are fine. But if they don’t, see how to get extra insurance yourself. This is usually quite inexpensive due to the fact that your plan is optional and therefore does not handle some valuable items covered by the owner (housing cost, liability, etc.). Just make sure you are insured about health, life and legal liability, and buy from an established company that has been around for several years.


Aviation accidents

For centuries man has been interested in the idea of ​​flight. From the ancient Greek myth of Icarus and his wax wings to the tireless search of the Wright brothers, it was a dream of many to ascend to heaven. Modern aviation technology has far surpassed what one would expect a hundred years ago. Commercial airlines are one of the safest ways to travel; however, private jets and planes are significantly more dangerous, resulting in thousands of deaths a year.
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Who is flying?

Flying a personal plane is a luxury that not many people feel. Flight lessons are expensive, as is access to a private jet. However, those who enjoy the feeling of flight describe it as an indescribable joy. Unfortunately, trained pilots are often too ambitious and try to perform tricks and maneuvers that exceed their skill level. According to statistics from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), pilots with less than a hundred hours of flight experience account for 45% of fatal crashes.
Failure statistics and causes

Accidents in private jets are quite common. NTSB data report that in 2005 there were 1,670 public aviation accidents that killed 563 people.
The NTSB reports that personnel-related factors were named in 91% of aviation accidents in 2005. Personnel-related factors include a wide range of errors, which may include:

• Inexperienced pilots

• Too ambitious tricks such as diving, flipping or turning

• Poor planning, such as insufficient gasoline

• Loss of control

• Adverse weather conditions

Accidents in the media
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Often people here report accidents in private aviation when a celebrity was involved. Famous people often enjoy the luxury of a private jet; however in many situations this led to their death. Stars such as vocalist Aaliyah (2001), golfer Payne Stewart (1999), John F. Kennedy and his wife (1999), singer John Denver (1997), Buddy Holly (1953) and many others all died in plane crashes.
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Depending on the circumstances of the plane crash, different people may be responsible for the damage. In many situations, pilot negligence is responsible for the deaths of their passengers; however, other factors may transmit the malfunction to the pilot training program or the aircraft manufacturer.
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If any of your acquaintances were injured or killed in a plane crash, you need to investigate the case to determine liability. Contact an aviation accident lawyer to discuss your legal grounds for filing a lawsuit.

For more information on how to file a lawsuit in connection with a plane crash, contact the law firm of aviation accident lawyer in Austin Vika Fissel, P.K. today.
With Greece’s unemployment rate at 17 percent and the current pandemic not looking like it will soon disappear magically, many Greeks are starting to look for alternatives to the current financial system. They continue to seek solace in digital currencies. There are Facebook groups like Bitcoin Community Greece and Cryptocurrency Greece that aim to educate the Greek people about ‘cryptocurrency investment opportunities’. These groups have become very popular, with Bitcoin Community Greece reaching almost 5,000 members so far.
Finally, it shows that the Greeks take cryptocurrencies much more seriously, as it first became popular during the 2014 financial crisis. Could this lead to a potential cure for Greek debt diseases? The current rescue from the EU, combined with cryptocurrency, could potentially improve Greece’s financial and economic recovery over time.
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