This is the second part of the two-part description of aviation from its inception to the present day. This is a subjective view of several highlights of aviation over the centuries.
Glen Hammond Curtis, who was well known in the aviation industry until 1908, won the first American Scientific American Trophy for flying an airplane when he flew June 4 on June 15 at the June Bug in 1 min 42.5 seconds on July 4. , 1908. On August 28, 1910, Curtis won the first international speed competition, about 47 km / h. He also became the first American to develop and fly a seaplane – the first successful seaplane flight. was made by Henri Fabre of France on March 28, 1910.
Before the First World War, the design of the aircraft was greatly improved. Pushing biplanes (two-winged planes with an engine and a propeller behind the wing) replaced tractor biplanes (two-winged planes with an engine and wind in front of the wing). Monoplane designs were rare, and when World War I broke out, huge biplane bombers with two to four engines were developed. Airmail was also launched, although it lasted only a week. The first airmail, officially approved by the U.S. Postal Service, began on September 23, 1911, and the pilot (Earl Owington) carried the mail to his feet and tossed the bag overboard when it reached its destination. In 1911, the first transcontinental flight through the United States was performed by Colbright P. Rogers. His flight from New York to California took 3 days, 10 hours and 14 minutes, and was on a Wright plane.
During the First World Aviation a big step forward was made in the design and manufacture of aircraft. Important was the experience of pilots who flew on early fighter ships for air maneuvers required in dogfights. Von Richthofen, Rickenbecker and many others were so successful that they learned to fly airplanes.
In 1919-1926, Captain E.F. White made a nonstop flight from Chicago to New York (727 miles – 1170 km), and Lieutenant Oakley Kelly and Lieutenant John A. McCaddy made the first transcontinental non-stop flight from 2 to 3 May 1923. This flight was made from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Rockwell Field, San Diego; and the first round-the-world flight was made from April 6 to September 28, 1924. Also in 1919, from June 14 to June 15, John William Alcac and Arthur Whitton Brown made the first endless transatlantic flight. hours to finish and they won the London Daily Mail prize of $ 50,000.
During these years, mail delivery also took a long time. In 1925, Congress passed the Kelly Air Mail Act, which allowed the Postal Department to contract with airlines. This made it possible to transport U.S. mail by air; after that in 1926 14 domestic postal companies were created.
On May 20, 1927, Charles A. Lindbergh flew into the “Spirit of St. Louis” from Roosevelt Field near the landing in New York City in Paris 33 hours later.
Pan American Airways was the largest operator of all international airlines operating before World War II. Pan American served 46 countries and colonies that connected all continents and almost all oceans. His huge seaplanes were known worldwide as Flying Cars.
Pan American World Airways began life in 1927 on a single-engine, single-route route from Key West, Florida, to Havana. From this beginning, the airline that will literally open up the world of aviation. Pan Am has launched more new aircraft developments than any other airline in history. She began writing routes across the world’s oceans and continents, eventually performing daily flights circling the world.
During World War II, aircraft became a decisive factor in waging war, and aviation usually made giant strides forward. Production of a small aircraft has increased significantly. Before World War II, the aviation industry employed about 193,000 people, and in 1941 their number increased to 450,000; At that time, 18 American airlines carried about 3,375,000 passengers, which is about 1 million more than in 1940. Air mail and express cargo also increased by nearly 30 percent. But by the end of World War II, the new flight line would take the form of a jet and a jet plane.
After World War II and until 1947, all the basic technologies needed for aviation were developed; Ordering a jet engine, aerodynamics, radar, etc. Orders for civilian aircraft rose sharply from 6,444 in 1941 to 40,000 by the end of 1945. One of the minor military contractors was Boeing, which later became the world’s largest aircraft manufacturer. With all the new technology developed at this time, airliners were larger, faster and they had pressurized cabins. New aerodynamic designs, metals and power plants will lead to high-speed turbojet aircraft. Later, these aircraft will be able to fly supersonically and regularly make transoceanic flights.
One of the most famous record flights in aviation around this time was Voyager, developed by Burt Rutan. The flight, maintaining an average speed of 115.8 mph (186.3 km / h), lasted 9 days, 3 minutes, 44 seconds and flew 25,012 miles (40,254 km) and was completed in December 1986.