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What is the difference between a charter and a commercial aircraft?

If you are looking for a faster and more efficient way to fly, you need to know what is a charter plane. A charter aircraft is significantly different from a commercial aircraft. If you want to get the most out of your flight, you need to understand the difference between a charter and a commercial aircraft.

The commercial aircraft is limited in schedule and is owned by a commercial company. This means you have to follow the schedule on which they fly. This can affect not only your travel plans but also your business plans. The charter aircraft is privately owned. These companies will be contacted by an individual and will receive instructions regarding the destination to which this person wants to fly. Therefore, the aircraft will be operated only on the day when it is ordered, and flies to the desired destination. This will give you an advantage if you need to get somewhere fast or if you have an emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Private jets and companies provide you with a fantastic service that commercial airlines cannot offer you. If you are in a hurry and you need to get to your destination quickly, you can call a taxi on a charter plane. Just like the taxi you would take off on the sidewalk, this service is now available in the sky. Some rental planes provide this fantastic service – all you have to do is call them and they will give you a plane that will take you from your destination and back on time.

You can enjoy a much more personal experience when using a charter plane. Commercial flights are designed to deliver as many people as possible to their destinations. This often means a lack of space and of course places that are really only suitable for young children. Looking for a more personal flight experience, you need to choose a plane rental. Instead of forcing people to climb over and squeeze into your tiny seat, you can enjoy a spacious charter plane. The charter plane is smaller than the commercial one, which means there are fewer seats. Afterwards you can relax and unwind in a spacious setting by visiting your own air hostess. Aircraft rental also flies to destinations where commercial aircraft cannot reach. This is due to the fact that the lease of the aircraft is much smaller than that of a commercial aircraft and it can easily land on a smaller runway.

Whether you choose to fly a commercial or private jet is up to you. Eventually, you will experience much more private and individual service on a charter plane than on a commercial one. A private jet is the only way to fly stylishly, quickly and conveniently.

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5 tips on long-haul flights without stress

The world is getting smaller every day. Long-distance flights for business or pleasure are becoming increasingly popular. There are more planes, more airports where you can fly, and more people willing to spend noon air and more. It’s just easier and cheaper than having previously flown long distances. Unfortunately, the experience of traveling to the other side of the world can very often become a stressful and exhausting affair, especially for the inexperienced and unprepared. It doesn’t have to be that way. Just follow this guide to take a long flight without stress and you can sit back and enjoy everything!

Step 1: Do your homework:

A little homework will definitely help you find the right airline for you. The internet is a great resource in this regard, but don’t ignore that you are a local travel agent who can have a wealth of customer experience with different airlines.

You may want to find out who offers the most legroom, the quality of the food and how reputable they are in their customer service.

Nowadays, most airlines offer on-site entertainment, such as Singapore’s Krisworld system (always very good), and I especially liked the Japanese airline’s screen camera view, which allows you to see forward from the nose of the plane or down wherever you fly. These systems are a good way to kill a few hours of any flight.

Of course, price is important, and purchases really pay off. Don’t be afraid to go straight to the airline and check out any special offers they may have, as well as using agents on High Street and online.

Step 2: Airport time:

Check-in is usually expected 2 hours before the long-haul flight, although you should always arrive earlier than this, as most people come to the queue at about this time. You better spend 3 hours sitting in the lounge with a good book than standing in line for check-in!

Of course, the sooner you have, the better the chances of reserving yourself a good seat. Many airlines are now introducing services on their websites that allow you to book seats, order meals and check in through automated express check-in systems; the best way to do it to date.

Step 3: Enjoy the flight:

In a 19-hour flight it is important to occupy yourself. The obvious solution is a good book. I always create a book a few days before the flight, so I’m already “in it” before boarding the plane, providing a pre-planned slice of escapism.

Nowadays we enjoy technologies that allow us to be entertained. These often include the latest movies, video games and a variety of TV shows, as well as flight information. However, I still believe that an accurate book is the best way to kill time.

The Holy Grail of long flight is able to get a good night’s sleep. Air quality, light sources, noise and tight upright seats are definitely not conducive to falling asleep. For example, the Ezysleep travel airbag is designed to solve the problem of supporting your neck in an upright position, but there are other things you can do. Ear plugs and an eye mask can help cope with light and noise, so combine them with a travel pillow for quality sleep.

If the food isn’t up to scratches, make sure you’re prepared with wholesome snacks and a good supply of water. It may be free, but alcohol and coffee are very dehydrating, and that’s the last thing you want in an already arid environment. Stick to water and fruit juices.

Most importantly, enjoy the flight! Enjoy a time when you won’t have cell phones, boss and traffic, and relax. You are only 40 thousand feet from everything, make the most of it!

Step 4: Be healthy:

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a constant concern for long-distance travelers. Although extremely rare, but it is a very dangerous condition. This condition is avoided by ensuring constant blood flow around the body.

Do the exercises recommended by videos and magazines, take regular walks to the galley, toilet or just up and down the aisles and drink plenty of water.

Step 5: Avoid reactive lag:

The best way to avoid or minimize jet lag is to start planning during the flight. Set the clock to the appointment time as soon as you can, and do your best to keep you asleep when night time comes, even if it means no food on board.

Keep drinking this water so you don’t dehydrate the ground. When you get to your destination, don’t hit the hay right away. Try not to sleep until the evening and you will give yourself the best chance to quickly adjust to the new time zone.

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The three most dangerous mistakes when landing pilots and how to avoid them

Shootout, insufficient shooting, loss of direction control, wing strikes … all these are symptoms of mistakes made by the pilot. Mistakes that are easy to fix, but not necessarily the way you might think.

I landed at Nattra Airport at Cessna 172 in 1968. I felt pretty smug. It was a very smooth landing, one of those landings you heard but didn’t feel. Then a gust of wind picked me up and I landed a second time on a parallel taxiway. The pilot driving in the opposite direction was good enough (or perhaps stunned or frightened enough) to prevent a turn so I could get on the apron. I couldn’t look him in the eye as we passed. Blushing, I muttered to my passengers excuses I didn’t believe. I just made the three biggest (and most common) mistakes a pilot can make when landing.

Determined never to let it happen again, I spent a lot of time for 40 years thinking about how to avoid these mistakes. The NTSB states that 45% of weather-related accidents are caused by crosswinds and gusts. I believe in that. It’s time to introduce little-known techniques to help prevent these accidents. But first you need to understand their causes.

Landing too fast is caused by flying too fast on the approach or trying to get the plane to take off on the runway until it is ready. The solution is to fly in a consistent approach at one speed, select a safe predicted slip point (or PGP) and monitor the PGP until you land. But keep the plane about a foot away from the runway until the nose of the plane turns to land. Hold on until the plane lands. This way you land at the right speed.

Failure to cross-check in crosswinds leads to ground loops, disruption of the runway (the most common cause of accidents in the US), damage to the wing tip or, in my case, overflight and landing on the taxiway. Simply put, cross-control is the use of the rudder to hold the long axis of the aircraft parallel to the long axis of the runway and the use of ailerons to hold the aircraft above the runway. This ensures that the aircraft will move directly along the runway after the wheels touch.

Stopping a flight before the plane is over is one of the most dangerous mistakes a pilot can make. Its reason is a lack of concentration. His solution is good flying habits.

I was lucky in Nattra. If the crosswind was coming from the opposite side, I could be blown into the canal. Remember that the fact that the main transmission is on the ground does not mean that there are no “flies” left in the plane. Also remember that if you hold the plane just above the runway until it is absolutely no longer flying, it will again rise into the air with an unusually strong gust.

Easily in love with bad habits that lead to these mistakes. If the wind is calm and the runway is long, everything will be forgiven. So the question is: how to keep these bad habits from developing?

I want to tell you about two exercises that helped the pilots more than I could have imagined. They are a “very slow Dutch roll” and a “controlled projected slip”. Both are not complicated and dangerous. And simplifies and enhances the ability of any pilot to land.

A very slow Dutch roll is a simple exercise done at a safe height. It teaches two very important skills. First, the pilot learns to continuously move the stick and rudder to control the aircraft as conditions change, and second, the pilot will learn how to cross the control of the aircraft in the most extreme circumstances.

Here’s how to make a very slow Dutch roll. Select a point on the horizon and hold it still, changing the angle, speed and configuration of the sash. Maintain a constant height. Change the pot very slowly. Continue to increase the tilt angle until the aileron or steering wheel is pushed to the limit. This is the angle of inclination for the maximum crosswind that the aircraft can handle. The cross-controlled aircraft slowly accelerates to the side for a minute or two. At this time, the pilot must continuously move the flight controls when the aircraft accelerates to the side – an unexpected benefit of this exercise.

Let me tell you about the predicted slip point or PGP. As you approach the runway, your eye will naturally reach for a point on the runway that is not moving in your field of vision. The phenomenon is similar when you are aware of a collision with another aircraft: it remains in your field of vision but simply increases. Well, there is always a point on earth where exactly the same thing happens. This is the moment you would have slipped to if you had never made that last little flair to the ground. This is an extremely valuable concept that can save many hours of landing practice. I’ve never heard of another flight instructor talking about it, but I’m sure many pilots use this technique.

You can control PGP power and drag while keeping the air speed constant. To bring the PGP closer to you, reduce the engine power or increase the resistance of the aircraft – usually with dampers. To move the PGP away from you, increase the engine power or decrease the resistance of the aircraft.

Use the two concepts together to make consistent, safe landings. After setting in the finale, use the center line of the runway as a guide for very slow Dutch rolls. Use the ailerons to place the aircraft on the extended centerline, the rudder – to keep the long axis of the aircraft parallel to this extended centerline. Move the PGP to the same location each time. I recommend the runway threshold. Consciously continue cross-checking until the plane slows down to a taxi.

These two simple tricks will get you to the same place on the runway each time in a landing configuration that compensates for crosswinds or gusts until the plane goes so slow that you can arrive by taxi.

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Long Island MacArthur Regional Jet Airlines

Introduction:

The history of the 50-seat regional aircraft manufactured by Canadair and Embraer – and prevented to a lesser extent by the Fokker F.28 and British Aerospace BAe-146 scholarships – is largely the history of Long Island MacArthur Airport, as this type finally facilitated servicing the main hub according to carriers. Introducing greater airline coverage to smaller and secondary airfields, it offered the same speed, lock time and comfort as traditionally larger aircraft, bridging the gap between them and the turboprop aircraft of 19 to 50 passengers, which was too small and too slow for many of these sectors.

The need was largely created as a result of deregulation by airlines, which arose in the US the rise of the route system “hub spokes”. Accommodation and catering for high-capacity aircraft such as American, Continental, Delta and United, with longer but thinner segments operated by regional airlines having a two-letter code and livery, originally independent suburban carriers have expanded rapidly, primarily this new type of aircraft. It was the right plane at the right time and led to the so-called “regional jet revolution”.

Regional aircraft were not only the most cost-effective way to connect hundreds, if not thousands, of communities with airport hubs and global airline networks, “according to Bombardier Aerospace (which was later acquired by Canadair),” these innovative aircraft enhanced the passenger travel experience and provided regional air travel. , revenue and greater market share. To further increase traffic growth, the idea of ​​using a Canadair Regional flight to fly between cities that have “spokes” was promoted. Each new city that spoke increased the number of passengers who joined the regional partner of the regional airline. These additional routes have given passengers in small towns more opportunities to fly. “

It definitely happened at Islip Long Island MacArthur Airport.

“There are literally hundreds of markets that can’t support a regular aircraft, but 30-, 50- and 70-seat ones can now provide jet comfort and cost-effective service,” commented Doug Blissit, once vice president of Delta Air Lines Network Analysis. “Regional aircraft are a phenomenal economic transformation of the industry. The vast majority of deployments have been aimed at expanding the reach of centers by more economical aircraft.”

Apart from the nature of the cooperation type, it also had a competitive side. This could be considered a tool that attacks the fortresses of the heads and spokes of major airlines, allowing smaller aircraft carriers that began operating as traditional turboprop passengers to penetrate cracks in the armor of majors, build new routes “point-to-point” that do not need concentration. feed for sufficient load factors.

Early regional jet operations:

Perhaps the earliest regional aircraft in the Western world, which excludes from discussion the Russian three-engine engine Yakovlev Yak-40 with 27 passengers, was the Fokker F.28 scholarship.

The popularity of its high wing, the twin turboprop F.27 Friendship aircraft, resembling a compass needle aimed towards a jet supplement that provides higher speed and thus a reduction in block time, led to the development of the F.28 itself.

Announced in April 1962, it was designed for short-field operations, but provided more seating at 65 in the fuselage, wide enough to accommodate in five areas. Similar to major jets such as the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, at its front was a low-mounted wing with a complex shot – two Rolls Royce RB.183 Spey mounted aft. Junior turbochargers, a dorsal fin and a t-tail have retained simplicity by eliminating any front devices. Unique in its design was a petal pneumatic brake with a hydraulic drive, which formed the stern end of the fuselage. Expands to varying degrees and facilitates steep but slow and controlled descent profiles.

In addition to financial support provided by the Dutch government, the program shared risk with the Short Brats of Belfast, Northern Ireland; HFB and VFW Germany; and AiResearch, Dowty Rotol and Goodyear.

The three prototypes, respectively, first flew on May 9, August 3 to October 20, 1967, and the first serial version of F.28-1000 was delivered to launch the German LTU client on February 24 two years later. As with F.27, sales could be considered unequivocally, as F.28 was usually the largest type in a small airline’s fleet.

The stretched version, the F.28-4000, had a total length of 97.2 feet and a nearly 12-foot larger wingspan of 82.3 feet. It runs on two 950-foot Rolls Royce Spey 555-15H turbofan, it had a maximum takeoff weight of 73,000 pounds, a cruising speed of 530 mph at 21,000 feet and a maximum fuel payload of 1,162 to 2,560 miles. Although it had 79 single-class passengers in five seats, another six people, for a total of 85 people, could be held in a 29-inch seat with an additional covered exit on each side. .

The type is taken into account in Plymont’s “Islip” operation.

Piedmont itself opened the scheduled air service on February 20, 1948 on flight 41. Departing from Wilmington, North Carolina, at 07:00, his DC-3 made multiple trips to Pinehurst, Charlotte, Asheville, three cities, Lexington and Cincinnati. . Two other aircraft of this type and 250 employees made up its metal and human backbone.

With gradual expansion, especially with the expansion of routes to Atlanta, he initially fueled Delta and Eastern flights, increasing significantly until he became an American major on his own. Perhaps symbolic of his prestige was his literal image, and the arrival of the image of major airlines in New York in 1966.

Profits reached: $ 1 million in 1965 and almost double that in two years. Having established its first center in Charlotte, North Carolina, it radiated its reach to major cities such as Boston, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Miami, Dallas / Fort. Worth and Denver, which exceeds the number of passengers carried the traditional stronghold of Charlotte.

Operating in the 727-100s, 727-200s, and 737-200s – the latter – a short- and medium-range workhorse – this was advertised in the system’s schedule from October 31, 1982. “We make it easy to move to more than 80 cities. “

Concentrators were later established in Baltimore and Dayton, and the wide-body 767-200ER eventually reached the West Coast and Europe.

By 1987, Piedmont operated a 177-fleet fleet of about 235 destinations, carrying 23 million passengers, and thus matured for the acquisition of USAir by $ 1.6 billion.

Capacity, especially passenger F.28-1000 for 65 passengers, provided frequency at Long Island MacArthur Airport.

Of the five daily departures he sent to his hub in Baltimore, morning and evening were performed by 737-300 people for 128 passengers; in the middle of the morning and in the afternoon flew the airline Henson, DHC-8-100 with 37 passengers of the regional airline Piedmont; and the noon sector was conducted with F.28-1000, which allowed it to “pick up” its equipment according to time of day, capacity and demand.

When in 1986 Piedmont acquired and concentrated in New York Empire Airlines, as well as a center in Syracuse and an F.28-4000 aircraft for 85 passengers, it deployed this type in Islip to power its much-developed center in Charlotte.

Another early regional aircraft was the British aerospace BAe-146.

The final design response to the need for a feeder or regional aircraft, it progressed through numerous iterations, including the high-wing, twin-turbine DH.123 proposed by de Haviland, and the low-wing with stern engines before it arrived at HS.146 Hawker Siddeley AL with a turbocharged -502 with a high bypass ratio. Since they did not create the necessary thrust for the intended aircraft, only the use of four mounted on a pylon at the bottom of the high wing could provide the required performance and range.

Although the official launch of this type in 1973 looked promising, the ensuing global recession, rising oil prices and rising development costs made it untimely, which led to its cessation in October 1974. Discreet developments still continued.

After merging de Havieland and Hawker Siddely into the nationalized British aerospace and conducting its own design and market survey, on July 10, 1978, the government received a full-scale development program.

The final assembly took place in Hatfield.

Sporting like the F.28 Fellowship, t-tail and stern petal, the fuselage forms an air brake for steep approaches, it deviated, having a high wing, also without front edge devices, and four turbofan. Although its cabin was wide enough to accommodate six seats, most carriers chose five.

The first flight of the BAe-146-100 from Hatfield took place on September 3, 1981. It was followed by two successively stretched versions of the BAe-146-200 and -300.

The first, which first took to the air on August 1, 1982, featured a length of 93.10 feet and an 86-foot span with 15-degree stripping and tabs, Fowler’s rear flaps. Up to 112 classmates could be accommodated in six steps of 29 inches. Its maximum gross weight was 93,000 pounds, and the range at full payload – 1130 nautical miles.

The BAe-146 was inaugurated by Air Wisconsin on June 27, 1983.

“Presidential Airlines”, founded by Harold J. Paretti in 1985 and headquartered in Washington, D.C., was the only operator of this type in the Islip that contained a fleet of eight BAe-146-200s other than the 737-200. Connecting Long Island with its Dulles International hub, he later worked as a carrier for the Continental Express and United Express codes, respectively, powering each of his principal’s flights to Washington.

Later regional jet operations:

The first next-generation regional aircraft took the form of the CRJ Canadair (later Bombardier).

In addition to developing new designs, aircraft manufacturers of potential low-powered jets had two options: reduce the scale of the existing aircraft, such as the DC-9-10, which would take into account too much design weight for its market, or increase the aircraft. Those in the latter category were business aircraft, although their narrow fuselages made them less than ideal for such a commercial application. Because of the wide cockpit of its own CL-600 Challenger, which first flew in 1978, Canadair was able to choose the latter option.

Originally intended to include a simple section that accommodates 24 passengers with four arms, and received the designation CL-600E, it was first published in 1980, but canceled its plans to move to a version next year. In 1987, or a year after Canadair was acquired by Bombardier, the concept of a small regional aircraft was revised, which led to its launch in 1989.

A more ambitious version than originally considered, it featured a 19.5-meter stretch achieved with front and stern fuselage caps, additional overlapping emergency exits, a reinforced wing with increased fuel capacity, and two CF-mounted General turbocharged engines34. which was first lifted into the sky as a prototype on May 10, 1991. After a flight test program on three aircraft on October 29 of the following year, he received FAA certification, entering the service of the customer Lufthansa CityLine, who used it. provide point-to-point and hub-food services to Western European destinations from Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich.

Highlighting what one pilot called a “sexy look,” the original version of the CRJ-100 had a pointed nose, 87.10 feet long, 69.7 feet, attached to a wing span of 520.4 square feet and just behind the sash, two 9220 traction traction reversor CF34-3A1 with traction reversing equipped with turbochargers, and tail. Fifty-four passengers could be accommodated in thin seats in the cabin with enclosed storage compartments, a galley and a toilet.

The payload was 13,500 pounds, the gross weight was 53,000 pounds, and the range was 1,650 nautical miles.

The next CRJ-200, powered by the CF34-3B1, provided greater range, lower fuel consumption and increased cruising speed and altitude.

Sales of both types were 1054.

Headquartered at Cincinnati-North Kentucky International Airport, Comair was the first modern Long Island MacArthur regional jet.

Starting service as an airline in 1977, it initially traveled to Akron / Canton, Cleveland and Evansville with eight Navajo passenger piston pipers, replacing them with the Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirantes turboprop for 18 passengers.

Accepted as a Delta Connection carrier and operating in its livery since the establishment of the Cincinnati Center in 1984, it expanded significantly, soon acquiring the Fairchild Swearingen subway, shorts 330, Embraer, EMB-120 Brasilia and Saab 340. Orlando became its second center.

As a customer launching the Canadair regional aircraft in Canada, by 2005 it had operated 163 types, including 63 CRJ-100ER, 37 CRJ-100LR, 37 CRJ-200ER and 27 CRJ-700LR.

Delta acquired a 20 percent stake in Comair in 1996, the rest three years later.

The type assisted the inauguration of Islip by providing three daily morning, afternoon and evening round trips to Cincinnati so passengers could connect to their own flights and Delta partner flights. This connection opened the rest of the country and some parts of Canada to Long Island.

Another Canadair Regional Jet operator from MacArthur, which was also a Delta Connection carrier, was ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines.

Opening Canada’s DHC-6 Twin Other aircraft from Atlanta to Columbus, Georgia, on June 27, 1979, it advanced through another EMB-110 turboprop aircraft to acquire the purely jet BAe-146-200 and Type CRJ-200 that powered the Delta Center. in Atlanta after concluding with him his own two-letter marketing agreement. As with Comair, ASA was added by an increase in share purchases until Delta was wholly owned by it.

Cincinnati, which was reached in 2002, became its 100th destination, and in 2003 it accepted the delivery of the 100th regional aircraft. Until 2011, it operated 112 CRJ-200ER, 46 CRJ-700ER and 10 CRJ-900ER.

Islip was connected to its own and large Atlanta Delta center with three daily CRJ-200 flights operated by the ASA, as of August 1, 1999. Comair later also served the route.

Another Canadair Regional Jet operator was Air Wisconsin, which received the US Airways Express brand and restored communication lost due to slot restrictions in Washington, Reagan, when its incoming aircraft, which arrived at 1250 on March 25, 2012, received a water curtain. on the MacArthur ramp.

Going again in 1328, he became the first of two daily CRJ-200 tourists. Although it was highly supported by lawmakers, it was short-lived.

The Embraer ERJ-145 was an analogue of the Canadair Regional Jet – if not a competitor.

Using its power from never-before-available engines that allowed it to operate in largely unused markets, it sought to outweigh higher fuel consumption compared to a traditional turboprop engine, increasing daily use of its shorter block time combined with greater passenger acceptance.

Unlike the Canadair CL-600 Challenger business aircraft, it used the EMB-120 Brasilia as an inspirational basis, introducing two fuselage plugs and a redesigned wing, with an extended front chord, a small stripping and wings, but replacing its turboprop engines with chisels. enclosed in pods. The T-tail was saved. It was originally designated the Amazon EMB-145.

The Allison GMA-3007 turbofan, which produced 7,100 pounds of thrust, with a capacity of up to 10,000, was selected in the early 1990s.

Iterations related to reduced length, increased spans, greater fuel capacity, heavier weights, and improved performance led to the final ERJ-145, which first took off on August 1, 1995. It accommodated 50 single-class passengers with three people with a partial stride. down the aisle at the front of the cabin it had 12,755 pounds of payload and 48,501 pounds of gross. It was first delivered to launch the client airline ExpressJet, which operated as Continental Express, the following year, providing capacity, speed and range to meet demand for longer, thinner routes for both its own flights and for Continental flights.

“Headquartered at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Continental Airlines is the largest airline in northeast Ohio, with more than 250 daily departures to nearly 80 cities,” United Airlines said in a March 29, 2004 report. “Маючы адзін з самых маладых паркаў самалётаў у ЗША, Continental і Continental Express прапануюць зручныя і высокачашчынныя паслугі ад Кліўленда Хопкінса да буйных бізнес-цэнтраў, у тым ліку ў Бостане, Нью-Ёрк (Ньюарк Ліберці, Ла Гвардыя, Кенэдзі, Уайт Плейнс, і Ісліп), Вашынгтоне (Нацыянальны Рэйган, Балтымор-Вашынгтон і Даллес), Чыкага (О’Хара і Мідуэй), Х’юстане і Атланце.

Як і іншыя рэгіянальныя авіякампаніі, сам ExpressJet стаў аб’яднаным вынікам некалькіх турбавінтавых прыгарадных авіяперавозчыкаў – сярод іх Bar Harbor Airlines з Бангора, штат Мэн; Авіякампаніі PBA Provincetown-Boston Airlines of Hyannis, Масачусэтс; Rocky Mountain Airways з Дэнвера, штат Каларада; і Brit Airways з Тэрэ-Хаўт, штат Індыяна, усе яны ляцелі паводле эксплуатацыйнага пасведчання апошняга.

Ён адкрыў рэгіянальную авіяцыйную службу ERJ-145 4 верасня 1998 года і, у рэшце рэшт, стаў найбуйнейшым аператарам тыпу з усіх трох версій, уключаючы меншы ERJ-135 на 37 пасажыраў і ERJ-140 на 44 пасажыры.

Яго тры штодзённыя ранішнія, дзённыя і вячэрнія частоты на Ісліп-Кліўлендзе, якія маюць нумары рэйсаў “CO”, звязвалі Лонг-Айлэнд з астатняй часткай краіны.

Яшчэ адным рэгіянальным самалётам MacArthur Embraer быў “Амерыканскі арол”.

Як і Continental Express, канцэпцыя American Eagle, якая была прадстаўлена ў канцы 1984 года, была вынікам няздольнасці American Airlines эканамічна абслугоўваць другасныя і трэцясныя рынкі сваімі самалётамі. Ён хутка рос, сілкуючы свае цэнтры і пераходзячы ад турбавінтавага да рэактыўнага абсталявання. Першы афіцыйна прызначаны рэйс American Eagle з Файетвіла ў штаце Арканзас у Далас адбыўся 1 лістапада, калі адзін з 14-ці Convair 580 свайго Metroflight, які працуе ад двух турбавінтаў Allison 501-D13H магутнасцю 3750 л.с., закрануў паўднёва-заходні цэнтр Амерыкі. Самалёт, перароблены з поршневых CV-240, -340 і -440, у выніку быў заменены на Saab 340.

Другім, які таксама далучыўся да гэтага перыяду, таксама ў тым годзе, стала камандаванне авіякампаніі Poughkeepsie, штат Нью-Ёрк, якое эксплуатавала Beech 99s, DHC-6 Twin Otters, Shorts 330s, Shorts 360s і ATR-42.

Трэці Сіманс разгарнуў японскія NAMC YS-11, шорты 360, ATR-42 і ATR-72 з Чыкага-О’Хара, і Wings West, чацвёрты, адправіў C99, метро Fairchild Swearingen, Jetstream 31 і Saab 340. да напрамкаў Заходняга ўзбярэжжа.

Нарэшце, авіякампанія Executive Airlines, якая базуецца ў Пуэрта-Рыка, ускочыла ў басейн 15 верасня 1986 года, выкарыстоўваючы авіякары CASA C-212-200, шорты 360 і ATR-72.

Ад Islip ён выконваў поўдзень ERJ-145 да Чыкага-О’Хара, дапаўняючы амерыканскія ранішнія і вячэрнія MD-80, і замяніў чатыры штодзённыя 34-пасажырскія Saab 340 (якія калісьці ляцелі ў колерах Business Express да AMR, Inc. ., набыў яго і склаў у марку American Eagle) з аднолькавай колькасцю частот ERJ-135 на 37 пасажыраў.

Чарговым аператарам ERJ-145 з “Амерыканскага арла” з Лонг-Айленда стаў П’емонт, які вядзе свой пачатак ад авіякампаніі Henson Airlines.

Заснаваны ў 1961 годзе Рычардам А. Хенсанам, піянерам авіяцыі і лётчыкам-выпрабавальнікам “Fairchild Aircraft”, ён высадзіў сядзячыя карані ў якасці аператара стацыянарнай базы ў Хагерстаўне, штат Мэрыленд, які атрымаў назву “Henson Aviation”. 1962 г. пад імем “Прыгарадны жыхар Хагерстаўна”.

Праз пяць гадоў, выкарыстоўваючы пагадненне аб кодавым сумесным карыстанні з авіякампаніяй Allegheny Airlines, і замяніўшы ўласную службу гэтага перавозчыка ў Солсберы, штат Мэрыленд, ён пашырыўся на Філадэльфію, Балтымор і Вашынгтон, сеўшы на свайго мільённага пасажыра ў 1977 годзе і набыўшы першы чатырохматорны рухавік на 54 пасажыры. дэ Хэвіленд Канады DHC-7 праз два гады пасля гэтага.

Набыты “П’емонтскай авіякампаніяй” у 1983 годзе, ён быў перайменаваны ў “Хенсан, рэгіянальная авіякампанія П’емонта”.

У наступным годзе ён прыняў першую DHC-8-100 на 37 пасажыраў, а да канца 1987 года абслужыў 38 пунктаў прызначэння ў дзесяці штатах, а таксама на Багамах.

Пасля зліцця ў 1989 годзе з USAir Хенсан працаваў у якасці USAir Express, а потым і US Airways Express, але праз чатыры гады быў перайменаваны ў “Piemont Airlines”, каб захаваць сваю першапачатковую ідэнтычнасць. American Airlines, якая набыла US Airways у 2013 годзе і перакваліфікавала яго на American Eagle, падтрымлівала філасофію.

Сёння “П’емонт” / “Амерыканскі арол” працуе штодня на трох частотах ERJ-145, адпраўляючыся з Ісліпа ў 0710, 1035 і 1858 г. у Філадэльфію, адзін з былых цэнтраў USAir / US Airways. Зваротныя рэйсы прыбываюць на глебу Лонг-Айленда ў 1007, 1833 і 2221 гадах.

Як ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines, так і Comair кіравалі большым CRJ-700 у “Ісліп”.

Вынік першай спробы Bombardier прапанаваць версію больш высокай ёмістасці, каб больш эфектыўна канкурыраваць з Fokker F.70 і Avro International RJ70, абодва 70-мясцовыя, афіцыйна запусціў праграму ў студзені 1997 г. На аснове арыгінальнага CRJ -200, ён прадставіў крыху больш шырокі фюзеляж агульнай даўжынёй 106,8 фута; большае крыло, плошчай 76,3 фута і плошчай 760 квадратных футаў; пярэдні край планкі для павелічэння нізкахуткаснага ўздыму і памяншэння ўзлёту; 13 790 цягавых турбавентылятараў CF34-8C5B1; ніжні паверх для павелічэння запасу кабіны; паднятыя пасажырскія вокны; аднакласны ёмістасць 78; і 18 055 і 75 000 фунтаў максімальнай карыснай нагрузкі і вагі брута.

Упершыню вылецеўшы 27 мая 1999 года, ён паступіў на ўзбраенне Brit Air праз два гады, захаваўшы той жа рэйтынг тыпу, што і ў папярэднікаў меншай ёмістасці.

Яго пашыраны радыус дзеяння CRJ-700ER меў магутнасць 1504 марскія мілі і крэйсерскую хуткасць 448 вузлоў / 515 міль / гадзіну / мах.

Здымкі рэгіянальных самалётаў у часе:

З-за попыту, неабходнасці рэгуляваць прапускную здольнасць, планаванне і, у некаторых выпадках, замяніць адзін тып самалёта на іншы, любая спроба абмеркаваць рэгіянальныя рэактыўныя аперацыі аэрапорта Лонг-Айленд Макартур можа быць зроблена толькі ў выглядзе здымкаў своечасова.

Напрыклад, у апошняй частцы 1988 года, якую можна лічыць сваім раннім рэгіянальным рэактыўным перыядам, “Прэзідэнтскія авіялініі” эксплуатавалі свае BAe-146-200s да Вашынгтона-Далеса, у той час як П’емонт “падбіраў” свой самалёт, каб падтрымліваць частату, сандвічы 65 -пасажырскі поўдзень F.28-1000 паміж раніцай і вечарам 737-300-х і да сярэдзіны раніцы і сярэдзіны дня Henson DHC-8-100s.

У 1998 годзе, які можна лічыць пачаткам эры рэгіянальных самалётаў наступнага пакалення, Лонг-Айлэнд быў злучаны з цэнтрамі Атланты і Цынцынаці Delta, а клівінланд Continental – з 50-мясцовымі CRJ-100, CRJ-200 і ERJ-145, адпаведна ад Comair, ASA і ExpressJet.

Колькасць штодзённых вылетаў уключала тры рэйсы Comair / Delta Connection CRJ-100 у Цынцынаці, два амерыканскія Eagle ERJ-145 у Чыкага, два і пазней тры ExpressJet / Continental Express ERJ-145 у Кліўленд і тры ASA / Delta Connection CRJ-200 у Атланта.

За першы месяц рэгіянальных рэактыўных аперацый апошняя авіякампанія перавезла 6 980 пасажыраў, што стала трэцім па велічыні арандатарам аэрапорта з пункту гледжання пасадкі.

Да снежня 1999 года восем з 37 штодзённых рэйсаў чыстага самалёта, або 19 працэнтаў, праводзіліся з новымі пародамі рэгіянальных самалётаў Canadair і Embraer. Да сакавіка 2000 г. штомесячны рэгіянальны пасад пасажырскага самалёта склаў 16 210 – гэта значыць 6 107 перавозіла ASA, 6 831 – Comair і 3212 – ExpressJet.

У жніўні 2002 года American Eagle замяніў свае чатыры рэйсы Saab 340 у Бостан на ERJ-135, забяспечваючы паток хаба American Airlines, а да восені ASA і Comair абнавілі дзве альбо тры частоты Атланты і Цынцынаці да большай ёмістасці CRJ-700.

Апошняе адкрыццё рэгіянальнай службы самалёта:

Апошнім перавозчыкам, які выйшаў на рынак Лонг-Айленда з рэгіянальным самалётам, стала Elite Airways.

Заснаваны, як адлюстроўваецца яго імем, каб прапанаваць якасны досвед падарожжаў у 2016 годзе, ён выйшаў на арэну ў якасці авіяперавозчыка ЗША па частцы 121, перавозячы спартыўныя каманды і кіраўнікоў як на рэгулярных, так і на чартарных рэйсах на маршрутах з паўночнага ўсходу ў Фларыду з адным CRJ -100, пяць CRJ-200 і пяць CRJ-700.

Абмежаваныя паслугі CRJ-700 два разы на тыдзень, ад Ісліпа да Портленда, штат Мэн; Міртл-Біч, Паўднёвая Караліна; і Мельбурн, штат Фларыда, былі ўрачыста адкрыты 17 чэрвеня 2016 года. Але меншыя, чым чакалася, фактары нагрузкі прымусілі яго двойчы зрабіць паўзу ў перыяд з 15 студзеня па 16 лютага 2017 года па красавік і ліпень таго года, каб перагледзець сваю стратэгію.

Хоць другая падвеска ператварылася ў нечаканую 16-месячную, яна, нарэшце, зноў з’явілася на сцэне 6 верасня 2018 г., на гэты раз накіраваўшы CRJ-200 у чацвер і нядзелю ў Мельбурн. Прызначаны рэйс 7Q 21, ён адправіўся ў 0800 і прыбыў у сонечны свет у 1045. Пасля 45-хвіліннага павароту ён адправіўся ў 1130 у Біміні на Багамскія астравы, зрабіўшыся першым універсальным спасылкай на яго Ісліпа.

“Маршрут распрацаваны такім чынам, каб пасажыры з Ісліпа маглі забраніраваць рэйс толькі ў Мельбурн альбо застацца на борце з падключэннем да Біміні”, – заявіла Рэбека Эмеры, кіраўніца па сувязях з грамадскасцю Elite Airways. “Гэта найбліжэйшы амерыканскі востраў Багамскія астравы з кіламетрамі адасобленых пляжаў, чатырохзоркавых гатэляў і казіно і прыстані” Біміні “на курортах”.

Зваротны рэйс, 7Q 23, адправіўся з Біміні ў 1330, але патрабавалася папярэдняе афармленне мытнай і памежнай службы ЗША. Прызямліўшыся ў Мельбурне праз гадзіну, ён наступным чынам працаваў як 7Q 24, узляцеў у 1600 і зляцеў у Макартур у 2045.

Фактары нізкай нагрузкі зноў прывялі да спынення яго эксплуатацыі, пакінуўшы ERJ-145 з П’емонта / Амерыканскага арла ў Філадэльфію ў якасці адзінай рэгіянальнай рэактыўнай авіяцыі Ісліпа на світанку 2020 года.

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Why buy a light aircraft Cessna 175 Skylark?

The Cessna 175 Skylark offers an affordable and reliable route to owning a private jet, and good examples can be picked up at prices no higher than the average family cabin. You don’t often encounter these rugged light aircraft, but they’re one of the models in the Cessna that has really stood the test of time.
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Cessna 175 Skylark is a four-seater single-engine high-wing aircraft, which was manufactured in 1958-1962 by Cessna. It was designed to fill a niche between the Cessna 172 Skyhawk engine and the powerful Cessna 180 and Skylane 182. That’s the name Skylark called the chic 175 version from 59-62. The main aircraft was sold as 175. The Skylark C175B included a package of optional equipment and a special paint scheme.

Throughout life, the basic design of the frame has changed once: from a straight cap, a straight tail to a hunchbacked cap and a sloping tail of later models. The fuselage of fast processing has remained on all production line.

Outwardly the only obvious difference between the 172 and 175 is the small hump on the hood behind the 82-inch propeller. The hump allows for the larger GO-300 Continental engine, which provides 175 additional horsepower and power. .

The C175 engine is rated at 175 hp. (130 kW), or 30 hp (22 kW) is larger than the 172. Skylark engine, having 175 horsepower, is 15 km / h faster than the Skyhawk, and can take off and land. at shorter distances. The extra power and manual sash activation on the Cessna 175 make these aircraft great for short takeoffs and landings.

The Model 175 had a newly developed Cessna dashboard, placing all the main instrument flights directly in front of the pilot, instead of distributing them across the dashboard like previous models. This makes them much better for IFR use than previous Cessna models.

The 175 is not a noisy aircraft, as the engine with the GO-300 gearbox runs on a low-speed propeller (maximum 2400), however, the slight noise of the gearbox drive will be needed in order to get used to those unfamiliar with it.

The Cessna 175 offers a comfortable ride, so you can continue the journey without fear of stiff limbs and a bad back at the end of it! The cockpit is well thought out, but it is the high wings – this is probably the best feature for the pilot and passengers. The high wings allow you to get a continuous view from all sides, which makes the flight of rest a real joy.

Between 1958 and 1962 a total of 2106 Cessnas were built in the 175s, so they are not the most common in airfields. But they are definitely worth considering if you are interested in buying an affordable and reliable light aircraft.

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Temporary barn at Old Rainbeck Airport

Unhooked from the falling air and lured by the crystal-blue dome of the sky at Coin Palen’s Old Rainbow Airport in early October, I made my way past snacks and a new field shop to the Biplanes Rides booth, which retained one of four passenger seats on a new standard aircraft with an open cockpit. 25 Hudson Valley Air Tours.

My ticket, which is now even $ 100 and has increased significantly compared to the 1995 price of $ 25, would have secured me a seat on flight HV 007, which flew in 1215. Although unofficially, the flight number was designed due to the fact that it seventh takeoff day.

I would be accompanied by a young couple who would split up in the front seats, and a white bearded man who would join me behind them. The pilot, of course, with his own cockpit, was behind us.

The sign on the departure terminal translates as “outside the cab”, “New standard D-25, American, 1928, engine – continental 220 hp Designed specifically for the harmonica, d.25 was the 25th He carried four paid passengers, flew easily, drove from the smallest fields and used modern (1928) construction techniques. This is our first New Standard, which carried more than 11,000 passengers here to Stary Reinbeck Airport. “

That was not entirely correct. The total number of passengers was accurate a few years ago, and its single D-25, registered N19157, has since been joined by a second, the N176H, to which I would have flown for the first time, my other aviation review of flights to the Hudson Valley in 1995. 2000 and 2006

After settling the field after the previous lap, he walked to the cockpit and overcame four passengers, before the next four, armed with safety briefings before departure and wearing helmets and goggles, were allowed to cross the grass on a two-step “ramp” located in lower wing lower wing. The turning time of this 89-year-old aircraft could be measured in minutes.

Following the root strip of the black fuselage, the orange biplane whose engine was spinning and splashing all the time, I stepped into the cockpit – and into the Golden Age of gymnastics. Arguing to the left of the two rear seats of the bench (2A) and continuing the seat belt like a metallic handshake, to the passenger who is next to me in the 2B, I tied him closely with my own. The common seats sat with common seat belts.

The storming of the ears and nose, even with the help of helical motion in idle rotation, led to an instant immersion in the technique of the devoid of the cabin of the late 1920s. So hard was the slip that the nostrils could not swallow the air, and the throat spray of the engine was deafening. I, as in my other open cabins, hoped to survive this era of aviation through my feelings. Maybe I was and I was still on earth no less.

If its downtime is in “breath” mode, then the advance of the throttle has led to a rough awakening. Released by the brake, the biplane began sprinting across the grass to the threshold of the runway, which in this case was the southern end of the field, a hill of turf slide, overcoming it and swinging to the right, turning 180 degrees, on the tail wheel.

There was no permission to take off. There was no radio to provide this. There was no other ground movement that could be handled.

The full progress of the throttle, opening the fuel arteries and pumping the aircraft engine with plasma, which exploded life, forced the aircraft to gravity down the slope, at the bottom of which the tail rose in flight of the horizontal stabilizer, which allowed the wings to do the rest.

The slip created by the rotating propeller and the increase in air speed, hopelessly limited by the tiny plexiglass windshield, hit me in the face and put so much pressure on my nostrils that they ironically could not accept, despite the excess air, the very substance I needed. easy.

It certainly reached the wings, however its increased speed was inversely contraindicated by the reduced pressure and allowed the biplane to jump off the grass strip. Double wings mean twice the surface area and its ability to lift. Surrendering to the cold, vibrant, crystal blue, he passed an aircraft line seemingly planted in a preserved pocket of history on the port side in the form of Caudron G.III, Albatros D.Va and Fokker Dr.1. triplane.

The D-25 won over the northern end of the field and, briefly moving to the left, won a reduction in the size of the Hudson Valley. Norton Road, now a tape than the type used to wrap packages, passed under the port wing. As I approached the airport, I was looking from another airport at the road and I was looking from another perspective down.

Overcoming terrestrial physical boundaries, the D-25 cut through the blue hue of the autumn bite, its orange, interconnected racks covered with cloth-covered wings that still pass green trees and patches of farmland, only occasionally highlighted by a lemon watchdog.

The pause helped my inner thoughts, both about the four-person cabin and about my location in it at the previews of the Palen Wheel in the sky. I am currently occupying my original place – this is where I was introduced to the era of air travel in 1995. In the front, to the right of the two seats – 1B – sat Jose, one of my Students of Aviation History Course at Farmingdale State University and next to him in 1A, Christian, as I recall, another in our class. I changed Jose on my next two aerial climbs in 2000 and 2006, and my mother sat next to me.

Now I was theoretically sitting behind her – or at least behind her chair, but since she had left the physical plane about 20 months earlier, I could include her in my flight today, coming as close as possible to the gloomy slippage of earthly ties and taking off of this. now her soul was confidently capable. Now I was with me, I knew.

Cole Palen himself, the founder of the famous airport, blurred the line between physical and eternal dimensions two years before the first fight began in 1995, and after graduating from school I never saw Jose and Christian again. Well, at least I didn’t go down without explaining myself first.

The wind, perhaps repeating them all, struggled with the engine for sound dominance, but although the latter technically won, it both roared and howled in its own way. Could the open cabin experience turn out to be just as authentic without them? I doubt it.

Passing the edges of the Hudson River, a blue snake interspersed with green topography, the D-25 climbed up without reaching the steel, installing an erector resembling the Raincliff Bridge, signaling a speedy return to the field.

Her shadow, reflected by the earthly silhouette, leaped over the geometry of the farm below, like a boundless spirit, and no doubt imprinted Cole.

Conducting invisible air currents, the biplane initiated a series of sharp turns, the wings swayed and protested with each maneuver, and air velocity fluctuations were recorded as sound wind intensities.

Passing perpendicularly over the green pattern, which was 500 meters from the Old Rheinbeck airfield, the D-25 curved to the left descent in a turn, with reduced force, almost diving to a cluster of trees that hindered its southern part.

Crossing the hill, he stopped the descent speed at a distance of about 100 feet above the ground, erupting and abruptly uprooting the gravel path, passing through the field with his two wheels, and allowed the resistance of the grass to lower it from the speed.

Swinging to the left with a surge of strength, he walked back to the biplane cab under the intense blue south.

Releasing the seat belt buckle, which I shared with a man I never knew, but with whom I exchanged casual, kindred-up glances in the air, I climbed out of the cockpit of the motionless bioplane and headed down the root of the wing. land and back in 2017.

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History of Brookhaven Calabra Airport

A recent visit to Brookhaven Calabra Airport, hidden behind woods of trees and private homes and approached by a local Dawn Drive, on a harsh day in late March whose steel wool sky was so low it almost scratched you, found that it was, but not necessarily that can be.

The approach near the Mid-Island Air Service was overwhelmed by mostly single-engine planes circled by a random twin, and an almost unexpected splash of insulated propeller from the Cirrus SR-20 on that day of slightly visual flight rules (VFR). silence, like a hammer, beats against a sheet of glass.

The whitish brick structure in the northern part of the field, once the proud classroom and training monolith of Dowling College’s Aviation Education Center, stood frozen in time, promising a past that did not give the airport a future.

The single, low-level, cement block, equipped with a single common traffic frequency (CTAF) monitoring, housed an equally enclosed dining cabinet, core, to some extent, at any general aviation airport, as this gave local and flight pilots a destination. testify to the numerous duos of student-pilot-instructors who have discussed aircraft handling techniques over the years on paper New York sectional maps that double as tablecloths.

A peek into the rectangular room, which exhibited the sign “Maintenance Store”, revealed a former place of upbringing, sports circular stools, a dinner stand, a piece of cold-cut and a rusty coffee maker. A recent request revealed interest and his resurrection as a diner. Perhaps it also pointed to her reworked future.

A low-altitude runway, 795 acres, a public aviation airport, one mile north of the Shirley business district east of Long Island, Suffolk County, belonged to the city of Brookhaven.

Originally marked by the flight of mastic, it was built at the end of World War II in 1944 on 325 acres to provide logistical support to the U.S. Army Air Corps, after which its title was transferred to New York State and eventually to Brookhaven Aviation General’s division. 1961, current owner. Given today’s nickname “Calabra,” it was named after Dr. Frank Calabra, who played an important role in its development but who along with his wife Ruth met their untimely death in a plane crash three decades later.

Construction and expansion yielded increased hangars, shops, stationary base (FBA) operators, the current terminal and a second concrete runway, which complemented the first in 1963.

Those, including a 6-24-foot runway and a 4,255-foot runway 15-33, are paved and lighted, but the latter has an instrument landing system (ILS) equipped and serviced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

$ 1.5 million in federal Department of Transportation (DOT) collective grants of $ 5 million, most of which went to the nearest McArthur Airport on Inglip Long Island in Islip, contributed to the recent replacement of the lighthouse and steering lighting system.

“We need to maintain runways, lighting, construction and navigation aids,” said Martin W. Haley, Brookhaven’s general services commissioner, which includes the airport. “Everything has a limited lifespan.”

Several stationary airport base operators and other tenants include Brookfield Aviation, Middle Island Aviation Service, Northeast Africa Airport, Edge Aircraft Finish, Long Island Breaking Association (Aviation Corporation, NASA Aviation for East N Island). performs aircraft and helicopter repairs and overhauls) and Sky Dive South Shore.

Dowling College’s Aviation School, once a cornerstone of the airport, but closed when the University, based in Oakdale, declared bankruptcy and ceased operations in 2016, offered a bachelor’s degree in aerospace systems technology and aviation management and took over the air. FAA movement. Educational initiative. The fleet of private pilot aircraft and flight simulators Fiasca allowed its students to receive private, instrumental, multi-engine, instructor (CFI) and commercial ratings.

Although the field was mainly caused by the activity of general aviation flights, there have been several other events throughout history.

For example, a new base for the former 44-passenger metropolitan company Swissair Convair CV-440, operated by Cosmopolitan from the airport of the Republic of Farmingdale and its self-proclaimed cosmopolitan center Sky Sky after they were transferred here, for example, they along with fragrant other species, offered on the Bader field of Atlantic Atlantic City.

The Grand Old Airshow, held in 2006 and 2007, was created to transport spectators to earlier, airplane and World War II eras and to demonstrate Long Island aviation.

Encouraging visitors through flyers and his website, he urged them to “join us this year when we go back in time to celebrate the Golden Age of Long Island aviation,” when “biplanes adorned the sky decades ago”. He continued his move, offering experiences of “past aviation days like World War I air battles, open-air biplanes, World War II fighters, and of course the famous gay snipers flying across the blue skies of Long Island.”

The shows themselves featured antique cars and static aircraft, the latter – “Avengers TBM”, “Fokker d-1”, “Newports” and “Messerschmitt Me-109”, and aerial stunts included comedic maneuvers performed in the “Piper J- 3 Cubs “” randomly selected “audience member Carl Spockle; The old Rheinbeck airports, borrowed from Delhi, dives and balloons aimed at the Great Lakes Spedestri, Fleet 16B and PT-17 Steers; high-speed races between the runway of motorcycles and air-motorized, low-speed PT-17; aerobatics on SF-260; and writing scripts by Dry 29s.

The Sikorsky UH-34D seahorse, used for rescue in Vietnam during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and NASA during the Mercury Project astronaut recovery program, demonstrated search and rescue procedures.

Long Island aviation aircraft and flying units were also well represented. Byrd, N3N, Floet Model 16B and N2S Stearman aircraft from the Bayport Airport Airport Company were presented at the exhibitions; P-40 Warhawks and P-51 Mustangs from Warbirds over Long Island; F4U Corsairs from the American Air Force Museum; and North American SNJ-2 from Geico Skytypers Republic Airport.

Ancient car and airplane rides were available. Spectators brought their own lawn chairs and lined them up next to the active runway during the dressing and speeches made by the Tuskegi Airmen. Concession trucks sold everything from hot dogs to ice cream and souvenirs, and many aviation schools and associations set up booths.

The Grand Old Airshow, which took place during two consecutive falls, was a one-day one-time visit, an open look at the sky, where the multifaceted history of Long Island aviation was written and where it was recreated.

In 2008, Winnie Nasta’s non-flying tribute was also offered. Riverhead High School art teacher, who hails from Wade River, lost his life at age 47 when, in a reproduction of Nieuport 24, he flew at Old Rainbeck-nose-pigeon airport into the woods after a mock aerial combat with another Fokker replica of the Triplen Dr.1 , August 17 of that year.

Dr. Tom Daly, a former dean of Dowling College of Aviation, a former director of Rainbeck Airport and creator of the Brookhaven Grand Old Airshow, was forced to stop what was becoming an increasingly popular fall event.

“There was some confrontation of the show,” he said, “and everyone had their hands. I needed to give an X number for safety, an x-number for an ambulance. I couldn’t do it anymore. I wouldn’t be able to hold air shows and meet costs with such expectations ”.

Today, there are 217 aircraft at Brookhaven Calabra Airport, 92 percent of which are single-engine types, five percent of which are engines and three percent are gliders. During the 12-month period ending March 25, 2005, there were 135,100 annual aircraft movements, or an average of 370 per day, and 99 percent of them belonged to the general aviation category, allowing student pilots to obtain licenses and practice on weekdays. day. on a flight at a low airfield.

Hanging on to this segment of aviation is its future.

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How long does it take to flush a small Cessna aircraft – cleaning an 101 aircraft

Many people are still unemployed, and the other day when I was in Wichita, Ksarychan, I noticed that the capital of world aviation production in the world has suffered very badly. Discussing this with a local at Starbucks, he noted that he had been fired for quite some time. President Obama seems to have made some derogatory remarks about corporate executives flying in corporate planes, and literally overnight used the sale of corporate jets in tanks even worse than before, and corporate jet orders just stopped as they hit a brick wall. .

We talk mostly in hangars, planes and flight stories. He said he would like to start an aviation-type business, but did not know what to do. Since I used to do a pretty nice plane cleaning business, he asked; “How long does it take to wash a small Cessna plane or a similar plane?”

Good question and my answer was this. To wash the appearance of a person working in a washer with a pressure of 5.0 hp, can clean, remove bed bugs, clean the windshield and degrease the stomach C-152 in about 15-20 minutes, if it is washed weekly. The “Corvalis” is a few minutes faster as it’s a low wing, but not much faster because it’s a quadruple.

For interiors, this is important if it is a privately owned aircraft or a rental. The interiors for planes, clubs and FBO planes take longer due to the number of flights and people who do not own the plane that operates them. Private owners are fast enough because you can use a quick dust collector, wipe the dash, open the dashboard and bottle with the door and cabin sprays, plastic, leather and vinyl in detail.

Indeed, I would say 5 minutes, a little longer than the car because of the tight quarters and the difficulty of moving inside. Add another 5 minutes for aviation school planes, they are really polluted, especially since food gets between the seat tracks and things like that.

The biggest money in aircraft cleaning is the market for corporate jets, but until things improve dramatically, I’ve already mentioned that it will need to do so. But he can still make details about light aircraft and working with a single engine, as not all aircraft owners have been in difficult times, and it really depends on where their money comes from and the type of business they run. “Washing planes is hard work,” I said “make no mistake about it.” If you are considering running an aircraft cleaning service, you may want to consider all of this.

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Aircraft Cessna in comparison – Cessna 172 Vs The Cessna 182

By ignorance, the Cessna 172 and Cessna 182 are no different. Both have 4 seats, high wing planes that tighten each wing. But for pilots they are significantly different aircraft.

The main difference between 172 and 182 is the engines. Both were produced for more than 40 years and during this time the plant came with different engines. Since the 172N was introduced in 1977, the factory standard engine has produced 160 hp. Prior to that, 172 engines ranged from 145 to 160 hp. Many older aircraft have been upgraded in the market after more powerful engines, including the popular 180 hp. version. All such changes are made using an STC or additional type certificate issued by the FAA.

Although the 182 was powered by several different engines, standard non-turbo models always weighed in at 230 hp. This difference in horsepower has several consequences. One, of course, is speed. 182 at 15-20 knots faster than 172. It can also climb 200 feet per minute faster. Usually aircraft with larger engines can also lift more weight. The standard late model – 172 maximum weight – 2450 pounds, and 182 3100 pounds. Not all that difference is a payload, an empty 182 – about 300 pounds. heavier than his younger cousin.

Not all differences between 172 and 182 are as easy to evaluate as performance and performance. Being heavier, the 182 is a more stable aircraft than the 172. It doesn’t bounce around very hard, and tends to track better in the direction you want. This is a good feature if you are going to do a lot of flying on instruments. (Flying in the clouds or without a visual reference to the ground.)

With more than 200 horsepower and a propeller-controlled pitch, the 182 is also considered a high-performance aircraft. This means that in order to operate it, you need additional instructions, both in accordance with the rules and requirements of insurance companies.

In terms of pricing, the typical price for a used 1978 172 would be as low as $ 40,000, while a similarly equipped 182 would be at least $ 20,000 more. In 182 it will also be more expensive to own. Insurance, inspection, engine overhaul and operating costs will be much higher. For example, 182 will consume about 3 gallons per hour more fuel.

None of these things make one plane better than another. What sets the plane apart is how you intend to use it. If you want a simple plane that is relatively cheap to operate, it requires 172. If you want to use your plane for transportation and are going to travel in the weather, the 182 is best suited to your destination.

Finally, as for distinguishing one plane from another, the recoil is the nose. The 182 has a fuller cap section to cover the larger engine and more streamlined windshield.

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Stages of deregulation of the US airline

I. Regulation

Although deregulation of airlines in the US was initially seen as leading to an increase in the number of carriers whose different service concepts, market segments, fleets and route structures would cause new competition, stimulate traffic and reduce fares, but eventually came a full cycle and only led to whirlpool monopoly. During its evolution, three different stages took place.

The ordinance itself dates back to 1938, when Congress passed the Civil Aviation Act. Its final five-member Civil Aviation Council (CAB), formed two years later in 1940, regulated fares, permitted routes, received subsidies, and tested long-distance agreements.

“The definition by definition replaces the regulator’s decision with the market’s decision,” say Elizabeth E. Bailey, David R. Graham, and Daniel P. Kaplan in their book Deregulation of Airlines (The MIT Press, 1985, p. 96).

In fact the environment so regulated was in fact that airlines often had to resort to buying another carrier just to get its authority on the route. For example, Delta Air Lines, which has long been interested in providing round-the-clock service between New York and Florida, has been constantly requesting clearance of the CAB. But the regulatory agency felt that the Northeast, a small local service provider that often suffers from low traffic, financial losses and bad weather due to its route system, needed the lucrative revenue potential of the Florida route to restore it to health and empower it instead. .

Delta, however, eventually applied for the acquisition of a regional carrier and subsequently obtained permission to merge on April 24, 1972. But these extremes will soon no longer be needed.

A glimpse of the future could already be seen in California and Texas. Having lost the jurisdiction of local air transport, KAB could not exercise either fares or route authority of domestic airlines, and these carriers tend to offer high-frequency single-class services at no additional charge for half the tariffs regulated by the “magistracy”. charge, consistently record both revenue and traffic growth.

For example, Air California and PSA Pacific Southwest Airlines, operating in the Los Angeles-San Francisco market, increase traffic figures annually from 1.5 million passengers in 1960 to 3.2 million in 1965. Technology company Southwest Airlines similarly provided low-cost services between Dallas and Houston and other Texas locations. These airlines have demonstrated that genuine deregulation can provide fares available to middle-income passengers, provide more airline choices and service concepts, and drive traffic.

Passengers and the government increasingly reduced regulation in the mid-1970s, citing examples cited by Air California, PSA, Southwest and other domestic airlines as clear evidence that deregulation could bring mutual benefits to airlines and passengers. At least that was the theory.

Finally giving in to common sense and democratic governance, President Jimmy Carter signed the Airlines Deregulation Act on October 28, 1978, eliminating the need for CAB approval for entry and exit routes and lowering most existing travel restrictions. Even those would eventually be eliminated when the Public Aviation Board was disbanded in 1985, which took place throughout the famous “sunset”.

At the time of the event, eleven then designated “trunk” carriers collectively controlled 87.2 percent of domestic passenger miles (RPMs), and 12 regionals, 258 passengers, five additional, and four domestic states provided a balance of RPM distribution. What else would break the sky when the dust of deregulation settled?

II. Deregulation

The first stage: new generation airlines:

Like California and Texas domestic airlines, a growing number of unconventional carriers caused by deregulation initially infiltrated the U.S. market. The first of these, Midway, became the first to receive certification after the airline deregulation law was passed and the first actually open service in 1979.

In November of that year, the young Midway-Chicago Airport, which was once the only city airfield in Chicago, was founded three years earlier by Irwing Tague, a former CEO of Hughes Airwest, Midway, who opened a low-cost Rainbow Aircraft service. , a high-frequency, no-convenience yet built O’Hara, and which Midway hoped to resurrect just as the Southwest was in the Dallas Love Field – with five classmates, 86 passengers, former TWA DC-9-10s, originally in Cleveland , Detroit and Kansas City. Its low-fare structure contributed to rapid growth, and it strategically hoped to penetrate the Chicago market without attracting O’Hare competition from established carriers.

But by taking Midway, the author can attest that he quickly learned three vital lessons that showed he would need to remain extremely flexible to survive in difficult market conditions:

Although it served the middle Chicago airport, it primarily competed in the Chicago market.

Second, after operating airlines lowered fares, load factors decreased.

Finally, the strategy of high density and low fare, which became a fundamental feature of the ongoing deregulation processes, proved ineffective when the airline tried to cater to a specific market segment, such as a higher profitability business where increased comfort and service were expected.

As a result, Midway changed its strategy by introducing a conservative cream-colored livery; single-class four-story business cabin seats with increased legroom; extra luggage space; and upgraded free in-flight wine service in exchange for higher prices than Rainbow Jet fares, but ones that were still lower than unlimited car fares.

The recently implemented strategy, dubbed “Midway Metrolink,” has significantly reduced the number of seats on a single aircraft. For example, its DC-9-10s -30s had 86 and 115 passengers, respectively, for example, they were only reconfigured for 60 and 84 as part of Metrolink’s new strategy.

Apparently, it successfully caused explosive growth: from an initial 56,040 passengers in 1979 to almost 1.2 million in 1983.

Capitol Air, another deregulated carrier whose author was equally involved, also experienced an initial and rapid expansion. Formed in 1946 as Capitol Airways, it began an internal charter service with Curtiss C-46 Commandos and DC-4s, eventually acquired the larger constellations L-049, and by 1950 became the fifth largest additional US carrier after World Airways , Overseas National (ONA), Trans International (TIA) and Universal. In January 1960, it became one of the largest parks in the constellation “Super Constellation”, resulting in 17 L-749s, L-1049Gs and L-1049Hs over a 14-year period from 1955 to 1968.

Redesigned by Capitol International Airways, the charter airline delivered its first clean DC-8-30 jet in September 1963, then operated four McDonnell-Douglas design versions, including the -30, -50, -Series 61 and -63, which replaced the constellation Lockheed as the working horse of his fleet.

Receiving the planned powers in September 1978, the Capitol opened the New York-Brussels office on May 5 of the following year and the second, the transatlantic sector of Chicago / Boston-Brussels on June 19. Like PSA and Southwest, Capitol Air, a former additional carrier, was not regulated by the battery, and therefore conducted its own “deregulation experiment,” sublimated the proven statutory economy of single-class, high-density, low, unrestricted, and even waiting for regular service tariffs. cost and profitability.

The planned concept, which was held under the brand “Sky Saver Service”, invariably attracted needs in excess of capacity, and caused a significant expansion of the fleet and route system. By 1982, driving six DC-8-61s, five DC-8-63s and five DC-10-10s for seven U.S. domestic, three Caribbean and three European destinations from the New York-JFK hub, it attracted an increasing number of passenger base: 611,400 passengers in 1980, 1,150,000 in 1981 and 1,824,000 in 1982.

Passengers who are unaware of the deregulation of carriers, whose low fare can only be profitable when using aircraft, high seat density and low wages, unconnected staff, often criticize Capitol Air’s non-linear policy and refusal to provide food and hotel rooms. during missed, connections of other airlines. However, the cost of its tariffs in the New York-Los Angeles market ranged from an unlimited $ 149, based on one-way purchases, to a unilateral $ 189, and unlimited tariffs in major markets ranged at $ 450. As a result, the Capitol Air load factor exceeded 90 percent.

By September 1981, ten new carriers had received certificates of operation and ceremonial service.

“The first consequences of deregulation were dramatic,” wrote Anthony Sampson in “Empires of the Sky: the Policy,” “politics,” “contests,” and “global airline cartels” (Random House, 1984, p. 136). The new breed of airmen saw an opportunity to expand small companies or create “instant airlines” that could lower fares on local routes; they could do with most of the superstructure and bureaucracy of large airlines, and could use their flexibility to strike giants at the weakest. places where they could return soon. “

Four types of airlines have emerged and have had a significant initial impact on traditionally regulated airlines.

Deregulation sports startups such as Air Atlanta, Air Florida, Air One, Altair, America West, Best, Carnival, Empire, Florida Express, Frontier Horizon, Jet America, Midway, Midwest Express, MGM Grand Air, Morris Air were the first to launch. Muse Air, New York Air, Northeastern International, Pacific East Air, Pacific Express, PEOPLExpress, Presidential, Reno Air, SunJet International, Hawaii Express and ValuJet.

The second were local carriers that had matured from deregulation, including Allegheny, Frontier, Hughes-West-West, North Central, Ozark, Piedmont, South, and Texas International, which quickly outgrew previous geographical concentrations.

The third, which crosses the border with domestic airlines, covered companies such as Air California (later AirCal), Alaska, Aloha, Hawaii, PSA, Southwest and Wien Air Alaska.

Fourth were statutes transformed from deregulation, such as Capitol Air, Trans International (later Transamerica) and World Airways.

Although some of these carriers, in particular Air One and MGM Grand Air, focused on very specific market niches, offering convenient locations and services, the vast majority – generated, raised or matured through deregulation education, achieved (or tried to achieve) profitability by means of of several key performance features including, of course, low, unlimited fares, single-level, short- and medium-level routing systems, high-density seats, limited on-board service, low-wage and mid-range labor, mid-range power such as 727, and short-range, low-capacity, such as BAC-111, DC-9, 737 and F.28.

All achieved high load ratios have created huge traffic in existing and emerging markets and created significant competition.

“In this regard,” write Barbara Sterken Peterson and James Gleb in their book “Fast Descent: Deregulation and Shaking in Airlines” (Simon and Schuster, 1994, p. 307), “deregulation worked like a charm”.

Second stage: Monopoly:

Although established, traditionally regulated major carriers are temporarily lowering prices in selected highly deregulated markets focused on airlines to maintain passenger bases, established airlines that are long maintained and protected by regulations have not been created to work profitably with them. But even in cases where they managed to eliminate competition from the market, another low fare on the road seemed to be waiting for the wings to fill the void.

Thus, operating carriers are faced with the choice of abandoning painstakingly developed markets or reducing financial resources to retain passengers until they themselves enter bankruptcy. It soon became clear that deregulation-induced price reductions would become permanent elements of the “new” unregulated airline, and large airlines eventually found that they would have to radically restructure themselves or succumb to a new breed of airlines. After all, almost every aspect of their business can be changed.

The first oriented aspect is the system of routes. Traditionally sophisticated with point-to-point, round-the-clock service, which began in the 1940s and 1950s with permission on PBX routes, did not actually contain the inherent “system” at all and consisted instead of balanced geographic features, resulting in loss of profits other carriers and inefficient, uneconomical use of existing parks. In fact it needed a centralized “collection” for feeding.

Due to bilateral agreements, European carriers are actually operating the first “hubs” that direct passengers from, say, Copenhagen to Athens via an intermediate connection point, such as Dusseldorf. Any passenger operating either in the Copenhagen-Dusseldorf sector or in Athens-Dusseldorf could theoretically move to any of the airlines that emit external spokes, greatly increasing the number of markets served. These European capital hubs have also demonstrated increased aircraft use, improved traffic flow, a larger market base than traditional point-to-point services that rely only on movement from the place of origin and destination, and can hold a passenger who connects.

“Although passengers prefer frequent round-the-clock service, such a service can prove expensive,” Bailey, Graham, and Kaplan argue (p. 74). “Airlines are thus faced with strong incentives to establish hub-talking operations … By combining passengers of different origins and destinations, the carrier can increase the average number of passengers per flight and thus reduce costs. In fact, a wider range of operations allows the carrier At the same time, the angle and sound operation provides a more convenient service for travelers in less intense travel markets. “

The first center in the United States began in the 1940s, when the government, trying to develop the south, appropriated to Delta several lucrative, long-distance routes in exchange for agreeing to serve several small settlements from Atlanta.

“All of these routes have become‘ spokes ’leading to the‘ center ’of the Atlanta Delta,” Peterson and Gleb said (p. 120). “It has been a convincing benefit to retaining passengers.”

Allegheny, a former Pittsburgh local carrier without a distinctive long-range development plan, has recorded significant success in its East and Mid-Atlantic route network, which has gradually “evolved” due to the Pennsylvania merger point. By increasing the balance of its predominantly business and small community route system with more remote sectors to leisure-oriented places, it was able to further maintain this evolution and by 1978, 73 per cent of passengers had joined. By 1981, that figure had risen to 89 percent, meaning that 89 percent of those who flew to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh did not fly to Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

The Delta and Allegheny constants were just the beginning of the phenomenon, as this concept more than created a concentration of airlines in a particular city. Instead, it led to a final monopolistic suffocation that precluded any competition.

For example, in four major U.S. centers (Atlanta, Chicago-O’Hare, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Denver), “the two largest airlines have simply squeezed out or made it virtually impossible for other airlines to expand and gain market share,” wrote Julius Maldutis. in competition with airlines at the 50 largest U.S. airports after deregulation (Salomon Brothers, Inc., 1987, p. 4).

In Atlanta, where both Delta and East once had hubs, the possibility of any significant competition from third carriers was eliminated. For example, in 1978, the percentage of traffic in the Delta and East centers was 49.65 and 39.17%, respectively, and nine years later these figures increased to 52.51 and 42.24%.

Аналіз 50 найбуйнейшых аэрапортаў (якія складалі 81,1 працэнта авіяцыйных раскладаў пасажыраў у ЗША) паказаў, што толькі дзесяць з гэтых аэрапортаў можна было лічыць менш канцэнтраванымі. З іншага боку, у 40 (або 80 працэнтах) аэрапортаў была залішняя колькасць канцэнтрацыі. У дзясятку найбольш канцэнтраваных аэрапортаў была адна авіякампанія, якая складала больш за 66-працэнтную долю рынкавых пасажыраў.

У Сэнт-Луісе, дзе і TWA, і Ozark кіравалі хабамі, першыя валодалі 39,06-працэнтнай доляй рынку, у той час як у 1978 годзе 20,21-працэнтная частка была ў 1988 годзе. У 1986 годзе гэтыя лічбы адпаведна павялічыліся да 63,16 і 19,68 працэнта. У наступным годзе, пасля таго, як TWA набыла Ozark, свайго адзінага іншага значнага канкурэнта, ён падзяліў гэтую долю на 82,34 працэнта, дзе дзевяць амерыканскіх айчынных авіякампаній падзялілі астатнія 17,66 працэнта. Камп’ютэрны спіс авіякампаній, які адлюстроўвае ўсе перавозчыкі, якія працуюць паміж трыма асноўнымі аэрапортамі Нью-Ёрка і Сэнт-Луісам 1 снежня 1995 года, выявіў у гэты дзень 27 рэйсаў. Ні адзін з іх не кіраваўся авіяперавозчыкам, акрамя TWA! Гэта была ўлада.

Падобным чынам, з-за дэрэгуляцыі выспеў П’емонт, які толькі ў 1977 годзе захапіў 10,19-працэнтную долю рынку ў Шарлоце, штат Паўночная Караліна, пасля дзесяцігоддзя пасля таго, як стварыў там цэнтр, манапалістычны 87,87%. Тая ж трансфармацыя адбылася ў Пітсбургу з Allegheny / USAir / US Airways-43,65 працэнта ў 1977 годзе і 82,83 працэнта ў 1987 годзе.

“Паколькі вялікая доля рынкаў парных гарадоў не можа падтрымліваць зручнае кругласутачнае абслугоўванне, аперацыі з гукамі і спіцамі апынуліся дамінуючай стратэгіяй авіяперавозчыкаў пасля дэрэгуляцыі”, – піша Бейлі, Грэм і Каплан (стар. 196). “Адбылося значнае адхіленне ад нарматыўнага бачання лінейных сістэм і маршрутаў да сонечных выбухаў”.

Акрамя канцэпцыі канцэнтратараў, асноўныя перавозчыкі перажылі некалькі іншых прынцыповых зменаў. Напрыклад, самалёты былі наладжаны на больш шчыльную і, у некаторых выпадках, сядзенні для аднакласнага, у той час як бізнес-кабіны павялічвалі секцыі першага класа і аўтобусаў па выбраных маршрутах; Пазней каюты першага класа ўвогуле былі заменены на камерцыйныя бізнес-класа, якія ўзнікалі ў трэндавым рэжыме, выкліканы некаторымі арганізацыямі па дэрэгуляцыі спецыяльных ніш.

Паліва-неэфектыўныя тыпы самалётаў паступова замяняліся праектамі новага пакалення і штодзённае выкарыстанне павялічвалася – з 8,6 гадзін у 1971 г. да 10,3 гадзін у 1979 г. На працягу 1970-х і пачатку 1980-х сярэдні памер самалётаў павялічваўся ў сектарах далёкага дзеяння, у той час як Памер 1980-х павялічыўся ва ўсіх катэгорыях. На пачатку 1990-х чыстаструйныя тэхналогіі ўпершыню праніклі на ўсе рынкі – ад 50-пасажырскіх рэгіянальных да міжкантынентальных да 500 пасажыраў.

Праца таксама была метамарфаваная. Па словах Роберта Крэндала, былога старшыні і галоўнага выканаўчага дырэктара American Airlines, “дэрэгуляцыя з’яўляецца глыбока анты-працоўнай дзейнасцю … адбылася масавая перадача багацця ад супрацоўнікаў авіякампаніі пасажырам авіякампаніі”.

Спагнанне тарыфаў на авіякампаніі, звязанае з дэрэгуляцыяй, стварыла больш нізкую прыбытак і прыбытак, з-за чаго фінансаванне можна было б перавесці ў традыцыйна высокія зарплаты і выплаты па заработнай плаце, што выклікала неабходнасць павышэння прадукцыйнасці супрацоўнікаў, перакрыжаванага выкарыстання, няпоўнага працоўнага дня, мер па размеркаванні прыбытку. . У некаторых выпадках працаўладкаванне фактычна забяспечвалася кантрактамі наземных службаў, каб знізіць кампенсацыю дапамог. Аўтар удзельнічаў у першапачатковым эксперыменце кампаніі наземнага абслугоўвання ў міжнародным аэрапорце JFK паміж кампаніяй Triangle Aviation Services і Royal Jordanian Airlines.

“Параўнальна новая, але хутка развіваецца канцэпцыя, кампанія абслугоўвання прадастаўляе персаналу на кантрактнай аснове канкрэтнаму перавозчыку, для якога ацэньваецца пэўная сума за штодзённы разварот, у адпаведнасці з аэрапортам кар’еры авіякампаніі (Хіксвіл, Нью-Ёрк, 1995, с. 9) “Тады кампанія, якая займаецца паслугамі, наймае персанал, праводзіць праграмы навучання (калі такія ёсць) і вызначае пагадзінную аплату працы і дапамогі”.

Надзеўшы мундзір каралеўскага іарданія і забяспечыўшы ўсе функцыі наземных аперацый, я часта адчуваў сябе “злоўленым пасярэдзіне”, адначасова спрабуючы дагадзіць пасажыру і авіякампаніі. У рэшце рэшт, яны былі маім заказчыкам, выяўляючы прыроджаны канфлікт гэтай канцэпцыі.

Зніжэнне заработнай платы ў авіякампаніі і выплаты фактычна прасочваюць іх паходжанне да самога Крэндала, які распрацаваў план па скарачэнні выдаткаў на працаўладкаванне пры дапамозе схемы аплаты “B-маштаб”, якая першапачаткова прапаноўвала больш нізкую зарплату новаспечаным работнікам і патрабуе ад іх большага даўгалецця, перш чым яны змогуць дасягнуць больш высокіх узроўняў “маштабу”.

“Амерыканка (сама) была гатовая ўзрастаць у памерах, і гэта моцна стымулюе гэта”, – сказалі Пітэрсан і Глаб (стар. 136). “Чым больш будзе пашырацца, тым больш рабочых будзе браць на працу – усё пры больш нізкай заработнай плаце – і тым больш будуць зніжацца сярэднія выдаткі”.

Па словах Бейлі, Грэм і Каплан у сваёй працы, якая рэгулюе авіякампаніі, рэгуляванне стварыла вышэйшыя галіновыя стандарты грашовых выплат і кампенсацыі дапамог. “Зразумела, што падчас рэгулявання працвіталі нягнуткія правілы працы і вышэйшая за канкурэнтную аплату. Супрацоўнікі авіякампаніі, відавочна, атрымалі вялікую карысць ад ахоўнага рэгламенту КАБ”. (стар. 197)

Яшчэ адна неабходнасць, выкліканая дэрэгуляцыяй, – усё большая залежнасць ад аўтаматызацыі. Амерыканскія авіякампаніі, на чале з Крэндалам, стварылі першую камп’ютэрызаваную сістэму браніравання авіякампаній SABER, якая адразу ж рушыла ўслед за сістэмай Apollo United. У якасці магутнага інструмента продажаў гэтыя аўтаматызаваныя сістэмы былі закуплены турагентамі, якія плацілі розную плату сваім уладальнікам за кожнае браніраванне, у той час як меншыя перавозчыкі павінны былі дамовіцца пра прадстаўніцтва.

Гэтыя сістэмы сталі настолькі складанымі і шматграннымі, што іх інфармацыя паступова сублімавалася праз кожны аспект працы авіякампаніі з “рэжымамі браніравання”, якія забяспечваюць браніраванне, маршруты, тарыфы, гасцініцы, экскурсіі і наземныя перавозкі, частае адсочванне міляў і авіябілеты. ; іх “сістэмы кантролю вылетаў” (DCS), якія забяспечваюць рэгістрацыю пасажыраў і выдачу пасадкі; і іх “рэжымы кантролера”, выкарыстоўваючы гэтую інфармацыю для вагі і раўнавагі самалёта, плана і нагрузкі і фарміравання пагрузных лістоў.

Толькі дзякуючы гэтым складаным сістэмам браніравання авіякампаній перавозчыкі змаглі рэалізаваць праграмы “кіраванне прыбытковасцю”, гэта значыць вызначэнне аптымізаванага балансу пасажыраў, якія прыцягваюць нізкія тарыфы і прыносяць высокі кошт прыбытку на аснове сезоннасці, часу адпраўкі, попыту. , зручнасць, магутнасць і канкурэнцыя, каб забяспечыць выгадны рэйс у канчатковым выніку. Напрыклад, у кансультацыях па сістэме браніравання авіякампаній пералічана 27 асобных тарыфаў паміж Нью-Ёркам і Лос-Анджэлесам 1 снежня 1995 г., амерыканскімі авіялініямі – ад неабмежаванай кошту першага класа ў кошце першага класа да 1,741,82 даляра да высокага абмежаванага кошту вандроўкі на аўтобус у 226,36 долараў. . Коды ў калонцы “Асновы падачы”, напрыклад, “KPE7HOLN”, былі даступныя, каб выявіць абмежаванні, далучаныя да кожнага – раздрукоўка якога ахоплівала некалькі старонак!

Яшчэ адным прынцыповым змяненнем дэрэгуляванай галіны стала як структура, так і сувязь рэгіянальных і прыгарадных перавозчыкаў з буйнымі прадпрыемствамі. Паколькі гісторыя часам цыклічная, мясцовыя авіякампаніі, якія калісьці дэманструюцца мясцовымі службамі, дэманструюць адмову ад невялікіх маршрутаў з нізкай шчыльнасцю, калі яны зноў набываюць самалёты з чыстым рэактыўным самалётам, але цяпер з двума асноўнымі адрозненнямі: (1). Сучасныя рэгіяналы ніколі не былі, паводле рэгламенту, абмежаваныя гэтымі маршрутамі і (2). Нягледзячы на ​​хуткае пашырэнне ўласных самалётаў, яны паспрабавалі суіснаваць, а не канкурыраваць з буйнымі спецыяльнасцямі, дзякуючы пагадненням па долевым кодзе, у якіх іх самалёты з’яўляліся ў буйных лайнерах, а іх палёты выконвалі двухпісьмовую афіцыйную авіякампанію. коды.

Напрыклад, з 300 кірункаў, якія абслугоўвала Delta ў другой частцы 1995 года, напрыклад, 85 з іх фактычна дасягнуты адным з чатырох носьбітаў долі кода “Delta Connection”, у тым ліку Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA), Business Express, Comair, і Skywest – толькі першы, які ў той час яшчэ не набыў чыстаструйную тэхніку. Амерыканскі знешне купіў уласную авіякампанію для прыгарадных падач і калектыўна назваў іх “Амерыканскім арлом”.

Тым не менш, рэструктурызацыя асноўных перавозчыкаў, звязаная з дэрэгуляцыяй, была завершана.

Калі TWA адпавядала неабмежаваным трансантынентальным тарыфам на аўтобусы, ранейшыя дадатковыя запісы на 30 пасажыраў на самалёце DC-8-61 у адваротным выпадку маглі ўмяшчаць 252 і адмянілі рэйсы. У аналагічнай сітуацыі, калі ў жніўні 1981 года па чэрвень 1982 г. на рынку Буфала-Ньюарка былі прааналізаваны фактары нагрузкі USAIR’s і Upstart на PEOPLExpress, апошні паслядоўна паведамляў пра тыя, якія былі як мінімум на 20 пунктаў ніжэй.

“Такім чынам, дадзеныя дазваляюць выказаць здагадку, што многія спажыўцы вырашылі падарожнічаць на перавозчыку з вялікім прызнаннем і зручнасцю назваў, калі кошт праезду аднолькавы”, – працягвалі Бейлі, Грэм і Каплан (стар. 106).

Канкурэнцыя ў канчатковым выніку прымусіла Capitol Air перабудаваць сваю сістэму маршрутаў, каб уключыць усё большую колькасць этнічных і незаслужаных рынкаў, пакуль буйныя кампаніі таксама не пасягалі на гэтай тэрыторыі, і перавозчыку не засталося нічога іншага, акрамя як падаць заяву аб абароне банкруцтва кіраўніка 11, спыніўшы сваю дзейнасць. 25 лістапада 1984 года.

Пасярэдзіне аднолькава сутыкнуліся з апазіцыянерамі буйных носьбітаў. Сапраўды, якую б стратэгію ён ні рабіў, каб вызначыць сваю аптымальную нішу, ёй заўсёды супрацьдзейнічалі агрэсіўныя спецыяльнасці. Напрыклад, набыўшы Air Florida ў 1984 годзе, ён перанаправіў самалёт на сядзенні двухкласнага класа, але, едучы на ​​абодвух баках прарэзы, неўзабаве зноў перайшоў да канцэпцыі аднакласнага і ў лістападзе 1989 года зноў перайшоў у двухкласны. адзін, да гэтага часу кіраваў флотам з 82-ма моцнай прыналежнасцю “Midway Connection” і перавозіў 5,2 мільёна пасажыраў штогод.

Але празмерная экспансія і спроба замяніць Усходні ў ягоным цэнтры Філадэльфіі падчас дрэнных эканамічных часоў у непасрэднай канкурэнцыі з USAir прывялі да ўласнай гібелі праз два гады, 13 лістапада.

“Хоць гэтыя шматлікія стратэгіі паказваюць на пастаянную пераацэнку належнага ходу, яны таксама паказваюць на нестабільнасць рынкавых умоў у дэрэгуляваным небе і на рашучасць авіякампаніі заставацца ў іх, а таксама на ўстойлівасць арыентавацца ў іх з выкарыстаннем канцэпцый абслугоўвання, канфігурацыі кабіны, сядзення шчыльнасць і маркетынгавыя стратэгіі “, па дадзеных McDonnell-Douglas DC-9 (Hicksville, New York, 1991, p. 59).

Capitol Air і Midway былі толькі двума прыкладамі выспелай дэрэгуляцыі носьбітаў, якія паддаліся радыкальна перабудаваным спецыяльнасцям. Сапраўды, з прыблізна 100 авіякампаній, якія былі сертыфікаваны з моманту прыняцця закона аб дэрэгуляцыі авіякампаній, у канцы 1995 г. яшчэ дзейнічаў толькі адзін, West America.

“(Буйныя авіякампаніі) рэалізавалі стратэгію, з дапамогай якой яны маглі перамагчы канкурэнцыю з нізкай платай за праезд у сваёй уласнай гульні, агрэсіўна пашыраючы і спаганяючы супастаўныя тарыфы, нягледзячы на ​​вялікія страты на пэўных маршрутах, усё, імкнучыся захаваць або, у некаторых выпадках , каб вярнуць сабе долю на рынку … Асноўныя перавозчыкі выраслі моцнымі і манапалістычнымі, ухіляючы канкурэнцыю, дзе б яна ні сутыкнулася “, паведамляецца ў кіраўніцтве па апрацоўцы пасажыраў Austrian Airlines-JFK (Hicksville, New York, 1990, с. 10-11).

Трэці этап: Меганосьбіт:

Пасля пашырэння авіякампаніі, здавалася, самаход і супраціўляўся інерцыі. Манаполіі па вызначэнні не ведаюць межаў. Лагічным наступным крокам было пранікненне знешняга рынку.

У адрозненне ад унутранага росту ЗША, “амерыканскай авіякампаніі было значна больш складана атрымаць доступ да новага знешняга рынку, чым да новага ўнутранага, таму што міжнародныя паветраныя паслугі па-ранейшаму жорстка рэгуляваліся двухбаковымі пагадненнямі паміж урадамі ЗША і замежнымі ўрадамі. , “пісалі Пітэрсан і Глаб (стар. 283). “… Каб атрымаць непасрэдныя аперацыйныя правы на замежную краіну, амерыканскаму перавозчыку давялося набыць маршрутны орган у іншай амерыканскай авіякампаніі”.

Згаданае з’ява – гэта віртуальнае паўтарэнне ўрадавай структуры ЗША напярэдадні дэрэгуляцыі. Такая пакупка ў апошнім выпадку звычайна прадастаўлялася толькі ў тым выпадку, калі аўтарызаваная авіякампанія знаходзілася ў фінансавых цяжкасцях і патрабавала прыбытку, атрыманага ад продажу, каб застацца жыццяздольнай.

Пан Ам, асабліва забіты эфекты дэрэгуляцыі, быў вымушаны прадаць свой прыбытковы дывізіён Ціхага акіяна, а таксама самалёты і наземныя аб’екты, “Юнайтэд” за 750 мільёнаў долараў, каб застацца на плаву. Аб’яднаная, якая ўжо тады была буйная фінансава авіякампанія, зараз мела глабальную сетку маршрутаў з належнай хатняй падачай.

Больш важным, чым продаж, былі яго далёка ідучыя наступствы. “Пакупка ціхаакіянскага аддзела Pan Am у” Амерыканскіх авіяліній “павінна была дамагчыся эфекту даміно”, – працягвалі Пітэрсан і Глаб (с. 148). “Многія авіякампаніі былі ўстрывожаныя ў сувязі з новай канкурэнцыяй, з якой яны сутыкнуліся, асабліва” Паўночны захад “, які пярэчыў супраць найбуйнейшай у краіне авіякампаніі. рухаючыся на Ціхаакіянскі газон. Паўночны Захад ведаў, што яму спатрэбіцца значна большая ўласная ўнутраная сетка, і самы хуткі спосаб яе атрымаецца шляхам зліцця “.

Да канца 1986 г. яно зрабіла менавіта гэта, набыўшы рэспубліку, якая сама была сфарміравана зліццём Паўночны Цэнтрал-Паўднёвы ў 1979 годзе і другасным набыццём Х’юза Эр-Веста ў 1980 годзе, і стратэгія ўзнагародзіла Паўночны Захад манапалістычным статусам на ўсіх яго цэнтрах. , напрыклад, Мінеапаліс, які мае 81,55-адсоткавую долю рынку.

Delta, fearing it would be unable to compete with airlines of such magnitude, acquired Western Airlines for $860 million in September of 1986, in the process obtaining a coast-to-coast route structure and new hubs in Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

The already described TWA-Ozark merger produced such a lock on St. Louis that it controlled three-quarters of all gates and was able to assess much higher fares in those markets where there was no competition.

In fact, these mergers only served to tighten a carrier’s already almost unrelenting grip on a particular hub. Deregulation-spawned Empire, for instance-a rapidly-expanding New York State Fokker F.28 Fellowship operator-adopted a Syracuse hub and recorded an initial 1979 market share of just.75 percent, but this exponentially increased to 27.36 percent in 1985 when Piedmont acquired the growing regional. Two years later, its market share climbed to 39.82 percent. However, when USAir in turn purchased Piedmont, the Syracuse hub lock skyrocketed to over 61 percent.

Perhaps the most encompassing (and disjointed) merger was that between PEOPLExpress and Continental, which itself had already been the result of an amalgamation between the original, pre-deregulation Continental, Texas International, and New York Air. PEOPLExpress had equally already absorbed Denver-based Frontier. Texas Air, owner of the new conglomerate, also acquired Eastern, but retained its separate identity.

All these mergers, consummated during the latter half of 1986, unequivocally produced the “megacarrier.”

“Deregulation’s theme, echoing Darwinian philosophy, clearly demonstrated itself to be ‘survival of the fittest,’ which, for the airlines, translated as ‘survival of the largest,’ according to the Austrian Airlines Passenger Service Manual-JFK (p. 10). “If the long-established major carriers… wished to survive and maintain the markets they had so carefully nurtured during regulation, they would somehow have to implement a strategy which would ensure that they would remain ‘large.'”

The major airlines’ fundamental restructuring, beginning with monopoly and ending with megacarrier, constituted that strategy, as carriers tracing their origins to the infantile days of aviation and bearing names virtually synonymous with the industry fell like a string of acquisition-induced dominoes. By 1995 only seven US megacarriers remained, including American, Continental, Delta, Northwest, TWA, United, and USAir, along with two significant majors-America West and Southwest-a few “niche” airlines, and the regional-commuters which were almost exclusively aligned with one of the megacarriers or majors through code-share agreements.

Even these names disappeared early in the 21st century. Like brides and grooms walking down a monopoly-destined aisle, Delta married Northwest, United took Continental as its lawfully wedded, American joined arms with US Airways, and Southwest tied the knot with AirTran.

III. Выснова

Although the examples set by Air California, PSA, and Southwest had indicated that a deregulated environment would ultimately prove to be mutually advantageous to both the operating airline and the passenger, these experiments failed to approximate actual conditions, since the rest of the US airline industry was still regulated and these fledgling airlines had therefore been insulated from major-carrier competition. Lacking the authority, cost structure, and equipment, they had been unable to launch comparable service of their own.

The initial proliferation of small, low-fare, no-frills, non-unionized deregulation-spawned, -bred, and -transformed airlines provided tremendous airline-, fare-, and service concept-choice only until the major carriers implemented their fundamental route system, aircraft, employment, computerized reservation system, and regional airline affiliation restructuring, reversing the expansion phase into one of buyout, merger, bankruptcy, retrenchment, consolidation, monopoly, and, ultimately, megacarrier. The upstarts, having lacked the majors’ name recognition, financial strength, frequent flier marketing tools, and size, invariably succumbed, leaving most of the original dominant airlines, although in greatly modified form, until even these surrendered to prevailing forces. US airline deregulation had thus come full cycle.