Снять путану с доставкой домой можно как для классики, http://rangefinder.ru/includes/pages/prostitutki-moskvy-big-forms.html Равно как для реализации безумных фантазий. Не надо шарахаться от, что вызов бляди в мегаполисе обернется клиенту многочисленными походами по больницам. Человек, купивший секс за установленный прайс, пользуется гарантией на тот факт, что останется полностью удовлетворенным. Интим- отдых в москве качественнее всего окажут индивидуалки. Шалавы в москве профессионалки своего дела и могут оказать мужчине огромное количество наслаждения – сколько он не имел за всю жизнь. Шлюхи москвы обязаны заботиться о женском здоровье, поскольку от этого может зависеть основной доход бляди и ее репутация. Статистика подразумевает, что потаскухи мск анализируют здоровьем лучше, чем простые женщины.
Although Machu Picchu is the most popular place in Peru, you would be disappointed to learn that there is no direct route from Lima, the Peruvian capital to Machu Picchu. Once you have landed in Lima, you need to get to Cuzco, the old capital of the Inca Empire. The distance between these stretching cities is over 700 miles. You can fly from Lima, or take a bus for a long challenging journey. Once you get to Cuzco, you will need to make another trip to get to Aguas Calientes, the nearest town to Machu Picchu. Machu Picchu, a famous ruin, is just a few miles from Aguas Calientes. You can get there on foot or by bus. Now let’s discuss all this more complicated.
Lima in Cusco
Most people get to Lima by international flight. If you get to Lima with enough time, you will probably be able to stay there for a night or two and move around the city. There are many cases where people reach Peru with a budget of 4/5 days. In these cases you have to fix the flight so as to get there in the morning. Most popular flights land early in the morning at Lima Airport. So you can make another flight from Lima to Cuzco in a few hours. They have 3/4 good airlines in Peru and some of them offer flights every few hours from Lima.
But you don’t have to buy tickets from the airport, and when buying an international ticket, make a flight to Cuzco that morning. Flight time from Lima to Cuzco is only one hour, so you can get to Cuzco early in the afternoon on the same day. There is another alternative way. You can take a bus to get to Cusco. This is a long way. There are several good bus companies that you can choose from, such as Ormeno or Cruz del Sur. They have posh buses plying between Lima and Cusco. If you are not in a hurry, you can choose a bus instead of a plane, as they are really very cheap. The plane will cost you about $ 100.00 for a one-way trip. While for a ride on a luxury bus to Cusco you only need 30.00 / 40.00 US dollars. But remember that the bus to Cusco takes about twenty hours.
Cusco in Aguas Calientes
When you get to Cusco, you can spend the night here or move to Machu Picchu on the same day. It depends on how many days you plan to stay in Peru. Cusco is a historic city. If you can spend some time there, you will definitely enjoy the city. But if you’re in a hurry, dine in the afternoon from Cuzco to get to Aguas Calientes. The train journey is scenic, and although you’ll have to sit on the train for over three hours (distance – 70 miles), you’ll enjoy it.
There are many hotels in Aguas Calientes. If you have a busy season, I recommend you book a room long before you get there.
Aguas Calientes to Machu Picchu
You can wake up very early in the morning to take a bus to get to the ruins of Machu Picchu. It is less than two miles and you need about twenty minutes to get to the ruins. Aguas Calientes is a very small town. They only have buses for transportation. you can easily cover the city on foot. They have two bus stations in the city, one is in the middle of the city, very close to where the train stops, the other – at the end of the city, towards Machu Picchu. Catching a bus from Aguas Calientes is easy, the ticket office is at bus stations, and the bus leaves the city at short intervals to the ruins of Machu Picchu. So get on the bus, enjoy a little 20-minute trip, get to Machu Picchu and enjoy the gorgeous Machu Picchu.
Italy is world famous for its cultural heritage and amazing food. However, such a diverse country deserves much more time than usual. This is why it is often better to visit Italy several times to experience the many different places and people it has to offer.
If you are going to try to see as many countries as possible in one trip, we would recommend this.
Start with Rome, which is the capital of Italy. It is a truly charming city with historic buildings and statues that surround you almost everywhere you go. Some highlights include the Colosseum, the Trevi Fountain, the Spanish Steps and of course the Vatican. The Roman Forum is also definitely worth a visit.
From here you could head to Sorrento. It is a small town, but it will give you an understanding of “old” Italy and allow you to taste the wonderful Italian seafood and the famous Italian drink called Lemoenchello. One could then ascend to Florence, famous for its art and buildings. After Florence you need to drive to Pisa. This city not only has a sloping tower, and is definitely worth a walk. Another very famous and popular city – Venice. It’s an absolute must see and just stunning. One of the best ways to get to all of these places is to rent a car and drive a car. This will make the trip much more flexible and spontaneous and will relieve the need for deadlines.
Italy has become a very popular country to visit, especially for South Africans. There are two airports that have airlines that operate flights to Italy. It is Cape Town International and OR Tambo Airport. The main airline that operates these routes is SAA, but other airlines such as Virgin Atlantic and Air France also do so.
What is the most difficult part of training pilots? Almost everyone will say, “We’re talking on the radio.” However, even beginners can sound good on the radio if they apply some simple rules. I will first discuss these rules and then give tips that all pilots can use to improve their radio skills.
Four Bs by radio
Usually it is most difficult for a pilot to make a radio call first – an “initial call”. However, with each initial call (and many subsequent calls) you just need to remember four W:
- Who am I calling?
- Who am I?
- Where am I?
- Where am I going, what am I doing or what do I want to do?
Take two examples of this, one for an uncontrolled field and one with a control tower.
As you prepare to enter a motion pattern on an uncontrolled field, you usually make a message, for example:
“Traffic in Miltown (who am I calling?), Cessna 12345 (who am I?), Which is 45 in the wind (where am I?), Runway 22 for landing in Miltown (what am I doing?).
With the control tower you can instead say:
Ocala Tower (who am I calling?), Cessna 12345 (who am I?) Eight miles north, two thousand five hundred from Charlie (where am I? – and add ATIS), Ocala landing (what do I want to do?).
Once established, you do not need to use four W for all communication. Instead, you just read the controller’s critical instructions to let them know you got them. For example, if the controller asks you to enter the right wind for runway 24, you will answer: “Cessna 12345 will enter the right air at 24”.
Try different scenarios with your friends or flight instructor, and pretty soon you’ll always know what to say.
Even if you know what to say, talking on the radio still requires some practice. Here are some tips to get you talking fast as a professional.
- Listen to the ATC communication. If you don’t have a radio that accepts aviation frequencies, see if you can borrow it from another pilot or at your flight school for a week. Listen to what the pilots say to ATC at their initial call and how they respond to ATC instructions. Try listening to ground, towers, approaches and center frequencies if you can.
- Write down what you say before making the initial radio call. You can even compose completed scripts to do so. After a few weeks of this most people can make calls on their own, but you will still want to record complex calls.
- If you are a student pilot, be sure to say this at the initial call-up so that the ATC will be more attentive to you.
- Don’t worry if you forget something. Even experienced pilots sometimes forget to inform the dispatcher of their altitude or that they have ATIS. Don’t worry – the controllers will ask you for something if you forget about it.
- To study the recommended phraseology, see Section 4 and the Pilot / Controller Glossary in the Aviation Manual.
If all else fails, use plain English! Not all situations lend themselves to the recommended ATC phrases, or you may just forget how to say something. One day I was leaving an unfamiliar airport and when I called the ground, I suddenly realized I had no idea where we were at the airport. The bell sounded something like this: “Land of Littletown, Cessna 12345, mmmm …” (at that moment I looked around wildly) “I’m a Chevron sign, ready to take a taxi with Delta, heading west.” Ugh – saved by the Chevron gas sign! The ground found me and allowed a taxi.
Garbage– called as Queen of the Hills, a beautiful station on a hill, perfect for having a nice holiday with family and friends and having a great time in the cool breeze.
This magical point is located about 35 km from Dehradun, and some major Hindu places of pilgrimage, such as Kedarnat, Badrinat, Gangotri, Yamunotri, Haridwar, Rishikesh, are close to this place. Therefore, if you want to make a trip to these religious places and seek God’s blessing, they are all in close proximity.
The cool climate is perfect for getting rid of the usual stress, go hiking and visit famous tourist destinations. Some of these may include Mountain Hill, the Municipal Garden and Camel Road, which are famous for horseback riding and have magnificent views to the west.
Now that you love the rains and love to dance on the waterfalls, there are also some picnic spots that are perfect for swimming and spending time. These include the fall of Bhatta and the fall of Kempta. Mussoorie Lakes are famous for water boat rides and also have a magical view of the Dong Valley and nearby villages.
At the highest peak of Mussoor next to Lal Tibbay and Char Ducan is Childer’s Lodge. This is one of the best places in Mussoor where there is a spectacular snowy view. You can visit the house even on horseback. Char Ducan was named after the number “4” because it consists of 4 (char in Hindi) places to eat.
Well, if you are a fan of websites and just can’t do without clicking images and landscapes, be sure to visit one of the best tours in Mussoorie, Dhanauli; famous for its green Deodoric forests and mountain landscapes.
The main attraction of Mussoorie – a shopping center. It consists of several hotels, restaurants, canteens and game stores for children and adults. The road opens the way to the Library Road, followed by the Tibetan Market, where people can make cheap purchases.
Above, Mussoorie is the best hill station to visit because of its pleasant climate all year round, with greenery in full bloom in October and November, which is the spring season there. The best season to visit Mussoorie is from April to June and again from September to November. When hot waves occur on the plains of North India, Mussoorie offers a welcome break. At this time the Himalayas are very clearly visible and look very beautiful and colorful. Alternatively, accommodation can be enjoyed at the Honeymoon Inn and other Musour hotels, so you don’t have to worry too much about the possibility of staying at this magnificent Hill Station
In the past, stress over the ocean usually flew over worries about the flight itself or that you forgot to gather the necessary things.
However nowadays people are more worried about having to choose this in-depth bag search and get through the airport in time to make a flight. The sad but true fact is that navigating airport security is more of a test than the flight itself.
So how can you get to the airport quickly and easily? Is it still possible to get to your destination on time and with all your bags? Here are some helpful tips that will hopefully make this dream come true!
Traveling through the airport easily starts with packing. Before folding your first shirt, visit your airline’s website to check the current restrictions. Then withstand them! If it says that you don’t have liquid transfers, don’t try to steal face cream because it’s not “really” liquid. Also make sure the bags are the right size and weight. Be sure to check again a day or two before departure if anything changes.
Your next task will be to ensure that all your bags arrive at their destination. Tighter security and more frequent baggage checks mean there will be more errors – lost luggage or (if lucky) temporarily left seats. More and more travelers are even reporting that they have found items in their bags that do not belong to them! Fortunately, there are a few things you can do to increase the likelihood that all your bags will arrive at the right place:
Now you have done your best to get the bags to their destination; but the best plans of mice and males are not always reliable. What if the worst happens and your bags get lost or delayed?
Here the manual packing comes into play. I understand that I just recommended taking as little as possible … But if you are really concerned about lost bags, I would recommend taking one outfit (don’t forget socks and underwear!) As well as a few essentials. In the past here you bought bottles of toothpaste and shampoo to collect them in hand styling. Unfortunately, those days are over. The good news is that, despite the restrictions on carryover, there is there is several viable alternatives!
Well, your “thing” will do it … what about you? Do you have a plan for a quick and carefree ride through the airport?
Airport security etiquette
The main thing to pass the airport security quickly and without any worries is to play by the rules. Don’t be angry; if you are offended, write a letter to the congressman when you get home. But for now, if a man in uniform asks you to do something, do it. Here are some other tips to make sure you are not the one chosen for viewing:
Following these tips can seem a bit tedious and detailed if all you want to do is get to your destination. However, I am sure you will agree that small worries ahead of time are worth making your vacation start quickly and without worries. So, the only thing you will have to worry about when you get there is whether you should spend your time studying or just lying down by the pool!
Learning to fly can be one of the greatest experiences of your life. The flight offers an exceptional sense of freedom and adventure that you will not get anywhere else.
Fort Worth, Texas has one of the greatest places to learn to fly if you want to experience aviation the way it used to be. The downside of most flight schools you’ll find today is the fact that most, if not all, have a “corporate” atmosphere. There is nothing wrong with that if you are a corporate type person. Most of the people I spoke to would have chosen a friendlier “Little Town” atmosphere. When I say small town, I mean the type of airport where you are known by your first name and always greeted with a smile. Looks like Mayberry, right? That’s great at the Sycamore Strip Airport south of Fort Worth.
Yavar’s chief flight instructor is Ron Jur. Ron offers exceptional flight training and lifelong knowledge in the aviation industry. Ron’s career began in the military as a bomber pilot who performed combat missions. After a military career Ron moved into the civilian sector and has been flying ever since. He and his wife own the Sycamore Strip Airport and offer quality flight instruction and aircraft at a reasonable price. In fact, during a research study of all flight schools in the DFW area, plane tree rates were the most affordable.
If you live in the Fort Worth area and want to learn to fly, you need to look closely at the Yavar Strip. Ron offers everything from a recreational pilot, a private pilot, an instrument rating and up to a CFI. Aircraft rental is the most affordable in the region by a wide margin. The Sycamore Strip is a small, low-cost airport that gives Ron and Connie the opportunity to pass on the savings to customers. Corporate aviation centers are primarily concerned with increasing profits and improving results, and there’s nothing wrong with that if you don’t mind parting with more money.
Sycamore aircraft leases include Sessions 152 and 172. Aviation services include hangar rental, mooring, and a full range of maintenance services. The Sycamore Strip is just 8 miles south of Fort Worth from Crowley Road.
The aircraft headset is a device that protects us from long-term hearing problems and helps keep in touch with the team as well as the air traffic control system. Unbelievable, but we see that pilots often figure out how to deal with a headset that doesn’t fit specific needs. Many are annoyed by their current comfort and constantly experience headaches and earaches to start disrupting work and reduce safety. Other pilots are frustrated with the headset’s malfunction and have also completely exchanged functionality for longevity. Many other pilots are affected by the brand image as well as the belief that the highest price equals the most profitable product.
Our headsets are devices used all over the world by pilots and flight crew members who fly on any items transported on military vehicles, helicopters and business planes. Although the targets are as diverse as the aircraft being flown, most of us have become pilots out of a desire to fly. Never let a headset with a lack of comfort and durability deprive you of that enthusiasm.
Standard flight lessons last from one to two hours. Cross-country flights are usually much larger. Either way you will need a headset that relaxes. Nothing can eliminate the pleasure of flying, such as an unpleasant and inadequate headset.
There are many aspects that determine whether your headset will be comfortable or not. These 4 elements:
– Clamping pressure
In pilot headsets with passive noise reduction, a clamping voltage is required to prevent noise. This is truly one of the several benefits of ANR pilot suits. They do not require a large number of clamps. Because pilots have different head shapes and sizes, the easiest way to find the most suitable would be to test multiple suits. Most headsets have large screws to change the clamping pressure.
A heavy headset can potentially cause discomfort in the shoulders and neck during long flights. When searching for pilot suits, examine the specific weight of multiple suits and, if possible, choose a lightweight one.
The more ways for you to change the headset, the more possible it is to customize it upside down. When looking for a headset, see how many ways you can change it.
The right amount and type of cushioning in ideal locations tends to significantly differentiate a relaxing suit from an uncomfortable one. The two most common places for a pad are the ear cups and under the bandage. Finding the perfect headset is a challenge that many pilots go through when they first start. To simplify a problematic search, just search Google for reviews as well as the pros and cons of each headset. After a quick search, I noticed a lot of websites that listed me a lot of information about the best review of aviation suits. After a few days of searching, I decided to buy a Bose x aircraft headset. It wasn’t in my intended price range, but I’m more than happy with my decision, and once I entered the flight hour, I was never more comfortable flying!
Emirates was recognized as the best airline in the world by Skytrax, the leading consumer aviation site for 2016. The Dubai-based airline was awarded at the recently concluded Farnborough Air Show. The emirate was honored for the fourth time in 15 years. The airline launched a winning strategy in 2013. This year the airline sits down with Qatar Airways to get the honor.
What makes Emirates special?
When it comes to the Middle East, everything is stunning and a spell of class and luxury, the same goes for Emirates. From the design form of the crew and support staff to the food and beverages on board, Emirates differs by all criteria compared to other airlines.
The amenities that make Emirates special are:
Private Suites – On Emirates flights the hotel has rooms with private space for the comfort, convenience and relaxation of passengers.
Shower spas – No matter if you are traveling for business or leisure, spas with showers will allow you to sit back and prepare for your destination.
Exclusive board rooms – If you have ever visited any salon of the Emirates airport, you will know why it was recognized as the best. The salons have spas, buffets, relaxing beds and sofas and more so you can exercise until you board a flight to the Emirates.
In flight Wi-Fi – Wi-Fi is a must for any modern airline, and both Emirates can stay behind. It is one of the first airlines to offer Wi-Fi on all its short, medium and long haul flights.
In-flight entertainment – ICE is an in-flight entertainment system for the Emirates. Passengers will love the wide selection of entertainment options. There are more than 2,500 channels of movies, TV shows, music programs and online games to choose from in several languages. The ice digital screen also has a wide selection of subtitles. Passengers are allowed to create their own personal playlist throughout the journey.
World class kitchen – A selection of food from around the world that would define your meal in flight – yes, it’s something that can accurately describe what the Emirates food and beverage section can offer. On board the flight of the Emirates you can find everything from caviar to salmon and fine wine.
These are just onboard services, but Emirates services are not limited to this. The airline also takes care of its passengers on the ground. It offers transfer from the airport, car rental and limousines also on request for unimpeded transport to the airport.
Middle Eastern airlines have set standards for airlines around the world and time for others to step up and join the competition. Such competitiveness will only amuse flights for travelers like us.
1. Return to JFK:
Two decades after Austrian Airlines launched New York’s initial but unsuccessful transatlantic service, a joint operation with Sabena Belgian World Airways was opened on April 1, 1969 by a registered Boeing 707-320 OE-LBA, which made a stopover in Brussels. he returned to the United States on March 26, 1989, this time on an Airbus A-310-300 with OE-LAA sports registration. The occasion not only introduced intercontinental service into its route system, but also a wide-range aircraft with the first cabin configuration in three classes. Unlike the previous attempt, this one was successful, but marked the beginning of another two decades of resilience, laid out by a variety of aircraft types, airline alliances and strategies, terminals, recycling companies and computer systems. This is his story.
2. JFK station development:
The initial training, held at Austrian Airlines’ North American headquarters in Whitestone, New York, and taught by Peter “Luigi” Hübner, began on February 6, 1989, or six weeks before the inaugural flight, and its program included “Passenger Handling I” and “Adios Check-In” courses.
Austrian Airlines’ first location, the East Wing of the now defunct International Arrivals Building, was a common Icelandair facility and included five check-in counters equipped with computers, automated boarding printers and laser-scanning luggage exchange printers. Saga Lounge top level.
Fully hired and trained by Austria and equipped in uniform, its staff performed all the functions of ground operations: passenger service, ticket booking, loss and find, cargo control, administration, supervision and management, while Icelandair staff served in the ramp controlling service aircraft and loading luggage, cargo and mail.
However, the success of the operation depended on the equipment that served it, and only the Airbus Industrie solution offered a shorter version of its signature A-300 with a smaller capacity, which made it possible to resume transatlantic operations with the A-310.
This two-mechanical, widescreen design of simultaneous technology provided the same range and two-pass comfort as the comparable four-engine 747 or three-engine DC-10 and L-1011, but at the same time proposed reduced power to facilitate profitable, year-round operations. Due to the size of the Austrian market the larger 747, DC-10 or L-1011 would otherwise operate at a loss outside the peak of the summer travel season. Any other long-range aircraft, including the Boeing 707 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-8, was introduced by the older generation Stage 1 technology with four stage 1 engines of the early 1960s, and would be banned by the U.S. Service if they were not secured or retrofitted. engine. The A-310 itself made possible the long and thin sector of the Vienna-New York routes of Austrian Airlines.
The original 1989 schedule offered six weekly frequencies in summer and five in winter, then two A-310-300s served New York and Tokyo, the latter with an intermediate stop in Moscow. In addition, they have also increased more distant routes, such as to Tel Aviv, Istanbul and Tehran.
During the first six months of JFK operations the aircraft never experienced excessive delays due to scheduling, which resulted in exemplary timely operation.
In-flight service, of course, accounted for most of the airline’s costs. As a result, many carriers have started to reduce this to reduce costs. However, Austrian Airlines remained unique in a world characterized by snacks and paper cups, providing a printed menu, convenience kits, Chinese cuisine services, free spirits and headphones in the transatlantic bus lounges to Vienna and back.
Due to the short fuselage of the A-310, however, the cargo space of the lower deck was limited, in the front hold usually housed units for loading luggage units (ULD), and the cargo itself, which was often limited to two pallets and one AKE unit.
Although initially the load factors for the New York-Vienna sector were low, they increased steadily until most flights were filled. Large tourist groups made up an increasing part of the passenger mix, along with expected passengers who could connect and who were able to take advantage of Vienna’s expanded center. This was the main evidence of the carrier when the passenger decided to fly with him and establish a connection at his home airport, as opposed to non-stop travel with the national carrier.
As a “second attempt” across the Atlantic, the Austrian Airlines A-310 intercontinental airline to New York City eventually succeeded.
With the acquisition of the third A-310-300 aircraft, registered OE-LAC, Austrian Airlines until the spring of 1991 expected a service to the second US gateway, for example, in Los Angeles, but the duration of the A-310-300 aircraft was 11 hours. ruled out this reality. Although an alternative to the American Boeing 767-200ER aircraft in Vienna was considered as an alternative, this would lead to restrictive competition, as O’Hare was the second largest hub, leaving Washington-Dulles as the only viable alternative.
A fuller McDonnell-Douglas MD-83 was ordered for the European Continental Network in 1991, and several existing MD-81s were converted to this standard, increasing their range and payload capabilities. Two additional Fokker F.50s were also ordered for domestic and long thin international routes.
During the five – year period from 1989 to 1994, Austrian Airlines operated flights to JFK on its own, offering only four weekly flights in winter and seven in summer.
3. Delta Air Lines Code Share:
The change in market conditions has caused a modified strategy for the Austrian JFK. Seeking to agree with the US domestic carrier on the goal of obtaining feed for transatlantic flights, for example, he entered into a marketing agreement with Delta Air Lines in 1994, in which he placed his two-letter code “OS” on a controlled Delta. flights, while Delta itself has mutually placed its own denominator “DL” on the services of Austria. Two Delta flight attendants, dressed in the uniform of their company, originally also served in the showrooms of their A-310s in Vienna and from Vienna.
Although the financial benefits of the concept lingered, the aircraft eventually achieved high load ratios, transporting passengers from Austria and Delta from about two dozen U.S. cities via New York to Vienna, often due to travel.
In order to reduce ground handling costs and achieve synergistic benefits associated with airline transportation, Austrian Airlines moved its operation to Delta Terminal 1A (later redesigned Terminal 2) on July 1, 1994, retaining only nine of the 21st staff. Delta Air Lines, a newly designated land carrier, assumed arrival, loss and discovery, passenger check-in, departure gate, ramp and luggage room, while Austria itself continued to perform its own tickets, cargo control, administration, supervision and management functions.
In 1994, two long-range four-engine A-340-200 engines were also purchased, designed for 36 business passengers and 227 economy class passengers, as well as registered OE-LAG and OE-LAH. They periodically served New York for the next decade.
Another change occurred three years later, between February 1997 and 1998, when he moved his counters and operations office to Delta Terminal 3, but otherwise remained in the same marketing alliance.
The year also noted for the first time that the transatlantic route to New York was ripe enough to support a second flight on selected days of the summer schedule, with this additional flight arriving in 2045 and departing in 2205, usually operated on OE-LAC aircraft, A-310 with abbreviated business, but the economic department of greater capacity, he facilitated communication with the southern bank departures from Vienna.
4. Perfection of the Atlantic:
Once again giving way to the restructuring needed to deregulate airlines, and trying to achieve additional synergies to reduce costs, Austrian Airlines merged its JFK operations with Sabena Belgian World Airways and Swissair on March 1, 1998, forming the Atlantic Alliance of Alliance. Although employees of all three airlines continued to wear appropriate uniforms, they worked in single passenger service and cargo control services, using the joint registration of Austrians, Sabbens and Swiss, and operated each other’s flights.
At the peak of the summer season, seven daily flights were offered by four airlines, including two to Vienna with Austrian Airlines, two to Brussels with Delta and Saben, one to Geneva with Swissair and two to Zurich, also with Swissair.
At Atlantic Excellence Station, eight functions were performed, including control, arrival, departures, VIP / special services, ticket sales booking, load control, ramp supervision and troubleshooting. As Swissair was involved in the preparation of goods for Malev-Hungarian Airlines flights to Budapest, the “Load Control” function itself involved the processing of six aircraft types 747-300, A-340-200 / -300, MD-11, A-330-200 -e, 767-200s and A-310-300s – transportation courses are often required.
As in some cases with Austrian Airlines, Delta has equally entered into mutual bilateral sharing agreements with Sabena and Swissair, but has now moved to the previous marketing agreement as a full alliance at the much-matured JFK Delta aviation center. Delta, however, continued to provide ramp and luggage camera functions for all three Atlantic Excellence airlines.
In August of the same year, Austrian Airlines adopted the first of four long-range A-330-200 airlines, registered OE-LAM and configured for 30 business passengers and 235 economy class passengers, and the type eventually replaced the A -310-300 as an intercontinental workhorse. The four aircraft, which later operated with a reduced business cabin at 24th place when the Grand Class concept was introduced, had OE-LAM, OE-LAN, OE-LAO and OE-LAP registrations.
During the summer schedule of 1998, Austria carried out the first two-plane operation from JFK, with the first flight usually performed by the A-330 and the second by the A-310.
5. Star Alliance:
Although a final “Swissport solution” was envisaged, under which all Atlantic Excellence ground operations personnel would be transferred to the service provider, the accident never occurred.
Rumors that rumbled around the station, as gentle warnings of a storm that passed, permeated the atmosphere until mid-1999. A new strategy seemed to be looming on the horizon, and its seeds, planted long before it blossomed, were multifaceted and comprehensive.
In June 1999, Delta Air Lines and Air France formed the foundation of a new global alliance, later renamed SkyTeam, disbanding the 25-month Austrian Alliance / Delta / Sabena / Swissair Atlantic Excellence, whose agreement would end without negotiation in August 2000. year.
Despite a 10 percent investment restriction, Swissair nevertheless tried to acquire additional shares in Austrian Airlines, preventing Austria’s goal of maintaining its own identity and independence and forcing it to withdraw from the Qualiflyer alliance led by Swissair European carriers.
Swissair and Sabena formed a combined commercial management structure, which again proved to be contrary to the independent direction of Austrian Airlines.
Finally, in early 2000, Saben and Swissair entered into a joint venture agreement with American Airlines, a US airline organization that contradicted the strategy of Austrian Airlines.
As a small but profitable international carrier with significant quality, Austrian Airlines, however, needed to achieve a global alliance to remain profitable, and thus entered into a membership agreement with Lufthansa and the United-Star Star Alliance, which entered into effective March 26, 2000.
The largest and longest alliance, then, included Air Canada, Air New Zealand, All Nippon, Ansett Australia, Austrian Airlines, British Midland, Lauda Air, Lufthansa, Mexicana, SAS, Thai Airways International, Tyrolean, United and Warig, and together carried 23 percent of world passenger traffic. But more importantly, the solution contributed to further independent identity and functioning, but at the same time had the potential for expansion. The decision was expressed as a feeling, “Here we are growing again!”
The transition from Atlantic excellence to the Star Alliance, which began in January 2000, has led to four integral changes.
1). A completely new IT system (information technology) and a program for frequent flights.
2). Prompt relocation to the new terminal, passenger service office, passenger check-in desk, air traffic control center and gate at JFK.
3) New airlines using coded flights and supplying traffic led to the closure of the Atlanta station and the subsequent opening of Chicago and the resumption of Washington in the United States.
4). Organization of migration trainings in Oberlaa, Austria, where the head office of Austrian Airlines is located.
Membership in the Star Alliance, which again led to a move to the First Terminal at JFK, caused another change of carrier, this time from Delta to Lufthansa, which now served as baggage and check-in services, while Austrian itself continued to act as an arrival, ticket sales, load control, ramp supervision and management. Under a mutual agreement, he also provided these passenger services to Lufthansa for its own departures to Frankfurt during non-business hours. Initially, the functions of aircraft loading and storage were performed by Hudson General, which was later renamed the GlobeGround of North America.
As part of a further cost reduction strategy, Austrian Airlines moved to a smaller passenger service budget on the ground floor of Terminal One in September 2002, during which time Lufthansa was given the load control / supervision function. No longer operating Lufthansa flights, Austrian staff has shrunk even further – now it employs six full-time and two part-time employees, and the number of daily shifts has decreased from nine to eight.
Austria’s largest aircraft carrier, the A-340-300, which accommodated 30 businessmen and 261 economy class passengers, also intermittently provided JFK service, especially in the summer schedule of 2002, when a late Saturday departure was scheduled. Two such aircraft, registered OE-LAK and OE-LAL, are now part of the fleet.
6. Swissport USA:
The continuing need to reduce costs led to another change of carrier in JFK on January 1, 2003, when most ground services were transferred from Lufthansa to Swissport USA.
In preparation for the change, Swissport Passenger Service staff took a guide check-in course in Vienna the previous month, while one Swissport agent, who organized the luggage department, attended the World Tracer Basic course in late October and October.
Dressed in the uniform of Austrian Airlines, Swissport staff performed the functions of “Arrival, Lost and Found”, passenger check-in, check-out gates, load control and flight control, while Austria itself continued to perform the duties of ticket sales, administration, supervision. and management.
The load control, which was originally performed in Terminal 4 using the DCS Swissair system, was eventually transferred to Terminal 1 and the Lufthansa-WAB system after Swissport operations personnel underwent a computerized load control course in Vienna in March.
7. North American Station Training Program:
Because most Swissport agents had little previous airline experience and were therefore unfamiliar with Austrian Airlines products and procedures, the author created a local training program, describing courses, writing textbooks, developing quizzes and exams, teaching the courses themselves, and then issuing certificates. about training to better prepare them for their duties.
The program, tracing its routes to the Austrian Airlines passenger service course established in 1989 and the introductory training material on load control, written in 1998, has become a full-fledged North American station training program, the content of which is updated according to the aircraft system. , The procedure and change of the alliance included four integral training programs “Initial Passenger Service”, “Ramp Supervision Certification”, “Load Control Licensing” and “Airline Management”.
Ultimately, including 27 procedural and training manuals on passenger service, ramp supervision, cargo management, air freight and airlines, two station histories and 28 training programs, the result was 63 courses taken by Austrian airlines and Delta airlines. . , Lufthansa, Passenger Handling Services / Maca, SAS, Servair and Swissport at eight North American stations Atlanta, Cancun, Chicago, Montreal, New York, Punta Cana, Toronto and Washington.
Праграма, якая хутка ператварылася ў эквівалент “універсітэта авіякампаніі” і часта называлася прычынай таго, чаму супрацоўнікі Swissport імкнуліся перавесціся на рахунак Austrian Airlines, аказалася важнай для кар’ернага росту, палягчаючы прасоўванне па службе альбо прыняцце іншымі авіякампаніямі .
8. Boeing і Lauda Air да JFK:
JFK, які да гэтага часу абслугоўваўся выключна Austrian Airlines і яго флотам самалётаў A-310, A-330 і A-340 Airbus, атрымаў сваю першую рэгулярна запланаваную эксплуатацыю Lauda Air 767 летам 2004 года, перавозчык, заснаваны гонкай Формулы I кіроўца аўтамабіля Нікі Лауда і лічыў канкурэнтам Austrian Airlines на пачатку яго гісторыі. Але да наступнага года яго частата павялічылася ў чатыры разы, і на працягу 2007 года яна ўвогуле замяніла 17-гадовую авіякампанію Airbus.
Летні рэйс Lauda 767 2004 года, які выконваў дадатковыя абавязкі да аўстрыйскай штодзённай частаты на працягу 11-тыднёвага перыяду з 26 чэрвеня па 5 верасня, павінен быў прыбыць у 2055 у суботу вечарам і вылецець праз 25 гадзін у 2200 у нядзелю.
Для таго, каб падрыхтаваць станцыю да дадатковай службы, былі створаны мясцовыя курсы Boeing 767 Passenger Service і Boeing 767 Control Control, якія супрацоўнікі Swissport праводзілі ў іх.
Паколькі тэхнічныя супрацоўнікі Lufthansa не валодалі 767 ліцэнзіямі, яе тэхнічнае абслугоўванне было заключана па кантракце з Delta Air Lines, якая эксплуатавала ўсе тры серыі 767 серый -200, -300 і -400, а перад навядзеннем самалёта была праведзена шырокая начная прыпынак і працэдура бяспекі. назад да трывалага трыбуна тэрмінала Адзін, у гэты час на ўсе дзверы доступу былі нанесены ахоўныя пломбы. Разгружанае камбузное абсталяванне прамылі і падрыхтавалі да наступнага вечара.
З-за ўмяшчальнасці самалёта Amadeus Class на 36 пасажыраў, позні вылет было цяжка прадаць у бізнес-салоне без значнага маркетынгавага прасоўвання і зніжэння кошту праезду, у той час як загрузка паддона з грузам была абмежавана на дзверы ў чатырох пазіцыях у пярэднім адсеку. Самалёты працавалі ў спалучэнні ліўрэяў Lauda Air і Star Alliance.
На працягу летняга раскладу 2005 года, з 14 чэрвеня па 2 верасня, 767-300 забяспечваў да чатырох дадатковых штотыднёвых частот, у выніку чаго ў агульнай складанасці было 11, прычым A-330 звычайна працаваў датэрмінова, а 767-300 – познім. .
Да 2007 года тып увогуле замяніў флоты А-330 і А-340, але з’явіўся ў некалькіх камплектацыях. Напрыклад, самалёты OE-LAE, -LAY і -LAZ мелі 36 дзелавых колаў і 189 эканамічных, а тыя, хто зарэгістраваны OE-LAX і -LAW, адпаведна мелі 30 і 200 месцаў. Самалёт OE-LAT, які прапанаваў самую вялікую ёмістасць з гэтых шасці, уключаў на дзесяць месцаў больш, чым гэтыя два, для дадатковага аўтобуса на 240 пасажыраў.
9. Цэнтралізаванае кіраванне нагрузкай:
У канцы 2006 года ў JFK была ўведзена канцэпцыя, вядомая як “Цэнтралізаваная сістэма кіравання нагрузкай” (CLC), і станцыя, як і ядро атама, стала асновай усяго гэтага.
Мозг дзяцей Майкла Штэйнбюгла, тагачаснага кіраўніка станцыі JFK, працэдура, якая ішла па тэндэнцыях, устаноўленых Swiss International у Нью-Ёрку, Lufthansa у Кейптаўне і SAS у Бангкоку, пачалася ў больш раннім следчым праекце, у якім ён даследаваў скарачэнне выдаткаў сродкамі вялікага, адзінага Цэнтралізаванага аддзела кантролю нагрузкі ў Вене альбо некалькіх рэгіянальных. Аднак апошняе цягнула за сабой моўныя і часовыя перашкоды.
Сам назапасіўшы значны досвед стварэння аператыўных працэдур і метадаў на пасадзе былога кіраўніка авіяцыйнай тэхнікі, ён добра разбіраўся ў пытаннях вагі і раўнавагі.
Імкнучыся прымяніць гэтыя веды і адначасова паспрабаваўшы выправіць несумяшчальнасць сістэмы і цяжкасці ў зносінах, якія ўзніклі пры размяшчэнні SAS-Бангкока ў Вашынгтоне, ён упершыню заняўся гэтай станцыяй, якая, як і JFK, ужо выкарыстоўвала сістэму Lufthansa-WAB. У працэсе ён вызначыў курс на шмат якія пераходы, здзейсніўшы некалькі паездак па службовых абавязках, каб усталяваць сумяшчальныя з мясцовымі станцыямі працэдуры, а затым склаў падрабязны буклет пра іх. Першая цэнтралізаваная табліца палётаў у Вашынгтон, OS 094, была створана 1 лістапада 2006 года.
Чарлі Шрайнер, тады кіраўнік Austrian Airlines Load Control, пасля адзначыў гэтую падзею, адправіўшы наступны тэлекс.
“З палётам OS 094 Austrian Airlines 1 лістапада, – пісаў ён, – наша першая лінія была падключана да рэгулярнага працэсу цэнтралізаванага кантролю нагрузкі на самалётах ULD. Усе мерапрыемствы па аператыўнай падрыхтоўцы палётаў, планаванні нагрузкі, каардынацыі ULD і WAB Сістэмная дакументацыя, уключаючы таварны ліст, які перадаецца ў кабіну праз ACAR, была паспяхова кантралявана нашай станцыяй JFK учора “.
Астатняя частка праграмы CLC, аднак, уключала паэтапную рэалізацыю. У маі наступнага года служба была адноўлена з Чыкага. Паколькі зараз гэта можна было лічыць “новай” станцыяй, лагічна вынікала, што яе таварны ліст з самага пачатку будзе інтэграваны ў сістэму CLC і, нягледзячы на адрозненні кампутарнай сістэмы, быў паспяхова адаптаваны з першым палётам 29 мая пасля працэдурных мадыфікацый.
Паколькі гэтымі гарадамі кіруе JFK, было прынята рашэнне аб інтэграцыі апошняй паўночнаамерыканскай станцыі Таронта, чый першы цэнтралізаваны таварны ліст быў выдадзены 1 ліпеня.
Тры спецыяльна прызначаныя аўстрыйскія авіякампаніі кантролеры нагрузкі ад Swissport, двое з якіх працавалі ў пэўны дзень у пік летняга сезона, сфармавалі каманду Цэнтралізаванай сістэмы кантролю нагрузкі.
Паколькі чацвёртая станцыя была інтэгравана, JFK выпускала каля 120 грузавых лістоў у месяц, і вельмі паспяховая сістэма давала мноства пераваг.
У першую чаргу гэта дазволіла значна эканоміць. Усе рэйсы адпраўляліся своечасова ў залежнасці ад плана іх пагрузкі і падрыхтоўкі грузавых лістоў, і ўсе чатыры паўночнаамерыканскія рэйсы аператыўна выконваліся толькі яшчэ адным штодзённым кантролерам нагрузкі, чым JFK, выкарыстоўвалі для аднаго вылету. Усе справаздачы інструкцый па загрузцы і табліцы нагрузак былі дадаткова сфарміраваны сістэмай Lufthansa-WAB, што дае Вене неадкладны доступ да ўсіх дадзеных і дакументацыі, звязаных з кантролем нагрузкі.
10. Боінг 777:
Калі Austrian Airlines 29 сакавіка перагарнуў старонку раскладу на зімовы перыяд 2008-2009 гадоў, JFK выставіла свой першы эксперымент Boeing 777-200ER – самалёт самай вялікай грузападымальнасці і пяты базавы тып, які абслугоўваў Нью-Ёрк пасля A-310, A -330, A-340 і 767.
Самалёт, які першапачаткова быў набыты авіякампаніяй Lauda Air, быў распрацаваны на 49 пасажыраў бізнес-класа і 258 пасажырскіх аўтобусаў, хаця два пазнейшыя прыклады, якія адрозніваліся больш высокімі валавымі вагамі і змененымі пасажырскімі механізмамі, змясцілі 260 пасажыраў эканом-класа ў дзесяць месцаў, тры-чатыры -тры, канфігурацыі.
За шасцімесячны перыяд з красавіка па верасень 2009 года на адным рэйсе было 34 адсоткі больш пасажыраў, якія прыбылі і вылецелі, а таксама значна павялічылася колькасць грузаў і пошты, чым у параўнанні з папярэднім перыядам, калі выкарыстоўваўся 767. Чатыры 777-я ў флоце былі зарэгістраваны OE-LPA, OE-LPB, OE-LPC і OE-LPD.
11. Пакупка Lufthansa:
2009 год стаў ключавым для Austrian Airlines, як на мясцовым, так і на агульнасістэмным узроўні. З-за сусветнага эканамічнага спаду, эскалацыі цэн на паліва, пагаршэння ўраджайнасці і моцнай канкурэнцыі ў Заходняй Еўропе з боку бюджэтных перавозчыкаў, яе фінансавая жыццяздольнасць і далейшае існаванне як кампанія апынуліся пад пагрозай, нягледзячы на папярэднія стратэгіі, якія ўключалі продаж яе A-330 і A- 340 флоту, скараціўшы сваю сістэму далёкіх маршрутаў, і рэалізаваўшы некалькі планаў рэструктурызацыі. Выратавальнік у форме пагаднення з авіякампаніяй Lufthansa-German Airlines дазволіў ёй працягваць дзейнасць, бо ён прыняў на сябе доўг і набыў большасць акцый.
28 жніўня Еўрапейская камісія афіцыйна ўхваліла пакупку авіякампаніі Lufthansa-German Airlines групы Austrian Airlines. Стратэгія, якая складаецца з 500 мільёнаў еўра ад заяўленай холдынгавай кампаніі для рэструктурызацыі і аб’яднання двух авіяперавозчыкаў, адкрыла шлях да інтэграцыі Аўстрыі ў склад Lufthansa да верасня. Аднак для дасягнення неабходнага антыманапольнага імунітэту сама Lufthansa павінна была пагадзіцца адмовіцца ад ключавых месцаў палётаў і скараціць колькасць паслуг паміж Венай і Бруселем, Кёльнам, Франкфуртам, Мюнхенам і Штутгартам.
Для Austrian Airlines, якая стане адным з некалькіх незалежных еўрапейскіх перавозчыкаў-хабаў, Lufthansa прадэманстравала фінансавае выжыванне, паляпшэнне эканамічнай асновы, сінергію выдаткаў, такіх як сумеснае набыццё паліва і самалётаў, а таксама доступ да шырокай міжнароднай сеткі продажаў і маршрутаў Lufthansa. Стварэнне Вены як высокаэфектыўнага цэнтра для руху трафіку да шчыльнай сістэмы маршрутаў Цэнтральнай і Усходняй Еўропы свайго новага ўладальніка лічылася моцнай сілай Аўстрыі ў сістэме.
У выніку гэтага ўладання таксама адбыліся шматлікія, фундаментальныя паўночнаамерыканскія змены.
Напрыклад, у Таронта і Вашынгтоне Lufthansa прыняла на сябе ўсе аспекты наземнай апрацоўкі.
У Нью-Ёрку больш за палову супрацоўнікаў штаб-кватэры ў Паўночнай Амерыцы ў Уайтстоуне былі звольненыя, а аб’ект, размешчаны на пятым паверсе Октагона Плаза і лічыўся сваёй “крэпасцю” амаль чвэрць стагоддзя, быў зачынены , а астатнія супрацоўнікі пераехалі ва ўсходні луг Lufthansa на Лонг-Айлендзе, офіс.
У самой JFK кампанія Austrian Airlines Cargo 1 лістапада ў аднолькавай ступені перамясцілася ў аб’ект Lufthansa, а праз 16 дзён Swissport перадаў факел наземнай эксплуатацыі Lufthansa-German Airlines.
Майкл Штайнбюгль, кіраўнік гэтай станцыі на працягу чатырох гадоў, быў павышаны да мэнэджара ключавых рахункаў у Паўночнай Амерыцы, але чатыры пазіцыі па продажы і браніраванні білетаў апынуліся лішнімі, калі Lufthansa ўзяла на сябе гэтыя функцыі, скараціўшы колькасць супрацоўнікаў Austrian Airlines да двух чалавек ( аўтар), якія атрымалі абмежаваныя шасцімесячныя кантракты, тэрмін дзеяння якіх скончыўся 15 мая 2010 г. Перыядычна ўключыўшыся ў працу і расклад Lufthansa, яны выконвалі свае рэйсы, знаёмячы супрацоўнікаў Lufthansa з уласнымі працэдурамі, але пасля гэтага пераходнага перыяду аднолькава вызвалены ад працы.
Апошняя “чырвоная адзіная прысутнасць” Austrian Airlines, прадстаўленая чыста аўстрыйскімі авіякампаніямі альбо супрацоўнікамі Swissport, адбылася 15 лістапада, і офіс на першым паверсе ў Першым тэрмінале, да гэтага часу “дом” для кіравання, пасажырскай службы, цэнтралізаванай нагрузкі Кантроль, продаж квіткоў, браніраванне багажу / Службы згубленых і знойдзеных, было адмоўлена на тры парты ў будынку Lufthansa, дзве з якіх былі станцыямі Duty Manager, размешчанымі на галоўным узроўні, і адна з якіх была зарэзервавана на пасаду кіраўніка ключавых рахункаў. на ніжнім узроўні ў офісе эксплуатацыі станцый.
Здаецца, усё адбываецца цалкам. Мерапрыемства, якое фактычна завяршыла 21 год аўтаномнай прысутнасці Austrian Airlines, азнаменавала вяртанне авіякампаніі да інтэграцыі ў 1938 годзе з Lufthansa і дамоўленасці аб наземным забеспячэнні ў JFK у 2000 годзе.
12. Моцныя бакі станцыі JFK:
У 2009 годзе авіякампанія Austrian Airlines ажыццявіла 666 рэйсаў прыбыцця і вылету ў JFK і перавезла 158 267 пасажыраў, якія прыбылі і выехалі, што на 18,42 працэнта больш, чым у папярэднім паказчыку, у той час як выконвала 5005 рэйсаў, якія прыбылі і вылецелі, і перавезла 1 074 642 пасажыра на працягу 7 У перыяд з 2003 па 2009 год Swissport USA прыняў там наземную апрацоўку.
JFK, вытрымаўшы некалькі альянсаў авіякампаній, тэрміналы, камп’ютэрныя сістэмы, кампаніі, якія займаюцца перавозкай, тыпы самалётаў і пастаянна памяншаецца колькасць персаналу Austrian Airlines за 21-гадовае знаходжанне, фактычна зачыніў свае дзверы, апошні са сваіх паўночнаамерыканскіх станцый у зрабілі так.
На працягу больш чым двух дзесяцігоддзяў ён працаваў з пяццю тыпамі самалётаў – Airbus A-310, Airbus A-330, Airbus A-340, Boeing 767 і Boeing 777; меркаваў чатыры стратэгіі – першапачатковую, незалежную працу; пагадненне аб долевым кодаванні Delta Air Lines; станцыя атлантычнага дасканаласці трох носьбітаў; і інтэграцыя Star Alliance; працаваў з чатырох тэрміналаў JFK – тэрмінала адзін, тэрмінала два, тэрмінала тры і будынка міжнародных паступленняў; імі займаліся тры кампаніі – Delta Air Lines, Lufthansa-German Airlines і Swissport USA; і выкарыстоўваў дзве камп’ютэрныя сістэмы.
Паколькі таленты і здольнасці многіх супрацоўнікаў былі накіраваны на творчыя і інавацыйныя вынікі падчас апошняй главы свайго існавання, JFK дасягнуў некалькіх дасягненняў, некаторыя з якіх дазволілі яму гуляць усё больш важную ролю ў Паўночнай Амерыцы. Іх можна падзяліць наступным чынам.
The North American Station Training Program, comprised of the Passenger Service, Ramp Supervision Certification, Load Control Licensing, and Management disciplines, was instrumental in the educational preparation of all entry-level employees, enabling them to perform their designated functions with sufficient procedural knowledge or climb the ladder all the way to management, if so needed. The textbooks and courses were subsequently used to duplicate this success at Austrian Airlines’ other North American stations.
The Centralized Load Control (CLC) Department, entailing the preparation of loading instruction/reports and load sheets for the four North American stations of Chicago, New York, Toronto, and Washington, was highly successful and once involved four aircraft types: the Boeing 767, the Airbus A-330, the Airbus A-340, and the Boeing 777.
The Baggage Services/Lost and Found Department, under the direction of Omar Alli, served as a model for other stations and earned a lost baggage rating that became the envy of them. Omar himself often traveled to other stations in order to provide restructuring guidance for their own Baggage Services Departments.
The Ticket Sales-Reservations counter, under the direction of Sidonie Shields, consistently collected significant amounts of annual revenue in ticket sales, excess baggage, and other fees.
The visible presence of Austrian Airlines, in red uniforms, to the passenger, whether worn by Austrian Airlines or Swissport staff, cemented its identity.
The several annual special flights, which sometimes posed significant challenges, but were always successfully executed, included those carrying the Rabbi Twersky group, the American Music Abroad group, the IMTX group, the Vienna Boys’ Choir, the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, and Life Ball, the latter with its high-profile celebrities, colorful characters, and pre-departure parties.
The special events, often fostering a “family” atmosphere among its own and Swissport staff, included the annual “Year in Review” series, the Pocono Mountain ski trips, the summer pool parties, the birthdays, the Thanksgiving dinners, and the Secret Santas at Christmas.
And, finally, the daily briefings, jokes, laughs, raps, camaraderie, friendships, and human connections continually emphasized and acknowledged the true souls behind everyone as they cohesively worked toward the airline’s and the station’s common goals.
Michael Steinbuegl, who assumed command as JFK Station Manager in September of 2005, had cultivated the environment and orchestrated the steps that had allowed every one of these accomplishments to be made.
13. Two Decades of Elasticity:
Austrian Airlines, hitherto among the smallest European airlines, had to assume a considerable degree of necessary “elasticity” during its 21 years at JFK, ebbing and flowing with the ever-changing turbulence created by prevailing market conditions, seeking financial benefit, synergistic strength, market niche, alliance realignment, and ultimate change of ownership. Defying Darwinian philosophy, whose “survival of the fittest” prediction is often translated as “survival of the largest,” Austrian Airlines had, despite numerous, necessary redirections, proven the contrary, perhaps prompting a rewording of the philosophy to read, “survival of the smallest,” if four short words were added-namely, “as a global player.”
Toward this end, the latest strategy enabled the carrier to survive. For station JFK and its staff, however, it did not.
Because I had been hired by Austrian Airlines two months before its inaugural transatlantic flight from JFK occurred on March 26, 1989 and subsequently held several positions there throughout its 21-year history, I felt singularly qualified, as a lifetime aviation researcher, historian, and writer, to preserve its story in words. It is, in essence, my story. It is what I lived. And what I leave…